Nuwe resepte

Wie het die koekies uit die koekie -fabriek gesteel?

Wie het die koekies uit die koekie -fabriek gesteel?


Wikimedia Commons/PaulHurst

Burton's Biscuit Company bied Britse gunstelinge aan soos Jammie Dodgers.

Inbrekers het op 12 Junie koekies ter waarde van £ 12 000 (sowat $ 19 000) gesteel by die Burton's Biscuit Company -fabriek in Cwmbran, Wallis, wat die vraag stel: wie het die koekies by die koekie -fabriek gesteel?

Die koekies is op 'n sleepwa gehys en ongeveer 160 myl weg van die fabriek gestort, volgens Suid -Wallis Argus. Dit is nie bevestig watter verskeidenheid koekies gesteel is nie.

Burton's Biscuit Company produseer Britse gunsteling koekies en koekies soos Jammie Dodgers, Wagon Wheels, Mini Maryland Choc Chip Cookies en Cathedral City Baked Bites. 'N Woordvoerder van Burton's het aan South Wales Argus gesê: "Dit is 'n geïsoleerde voorval en ons werk tans nou saam met die polisie in Suid -Wallis in hul ondersoek na die diefstal."

Burton's Biscuit het twee ander fasiliteite in Blackpool en Edinburgh, saam met 'n sjokolade -raffinadery in Moreton aan Merseyside. Die sentrale verspreidingshub is in Liverpool geleë. Burton's het ook 'n lisensie by Cadbury's om koekies van Caramel, Crunchie, Dairy Milk, Fingers en Bourneville te vervaardig.


Winkelvertoning: The Original Cookie Company

Cole National Corporation het verskeie winkels gehad, waaronder Children's Palace en Things Remembered, saam met optiese afdelings in ankers soos Sears en Montgomery Ward. Joseph Cole, die stigter van CNC, en 'n gesoute winkelsentrum in sy eie reg, het heel waarskynlik geweet wat hy doen toe hy besluit om die koekiemark in 1976 te betree toe hy The Cookie Place in Youngstown, Ohio, oopmaak.

1983 – Bay Park Square Mall – Wasau Daily Herald

Kort daarna is hy gekontak deur twee here wat op soek was na iemand om hulle te help om hulle uit hul sukkelende koekiesketting te red. Op grond van die sukses wat hy in sy winkel in Youngstown behaal het, het mnr. Cole laat 1977 die oorspronklike koekieonderneming gekoop en hul 24 bestaande winkels bereik.

Foto gebruik met toestemming van Richard M. Cole & amp Associates

Mnr. Cole het nie geskroom om sy nuwe ketting uit te brei nie. Ondanks die feit dat hy geen PR -teenwoordigheid gehad het nie en uitsluitlik staatgemaak het op flyers en goeie ou sigbaarheid, het Cole binne meer as vyf jaar meer as 90 suksesvolle koekwinkels geopen. Net betyds dat die koekie -oorloë regtig in die vroeë 1980's sou begin uitbreek.

Konseptuele skets van kunstenaars vir The Original Cookie Company. Gevind op die slopingswerf van Rolling Acres Mall.

Terselfdertyd brei The Original Cookie Co. uit, en ander koekie -uitrustings het ook hulself opgerig om nasionale kettings te word. Mnr. Cole sou vinnig in direkte mededinging beland met mense soos David ’s Cookies, The Famous Chocolate Chip Cookie Company of New Jersey en The Original Great American Chocolate Chip Cookie Company in Atlanta. Maar dit was mev. Fields wat uiteindelik kop aan kop sou loop met The Original Cookie Co.

Foto gebruik met toestemming van Richard M. Cole & amp Associates

Die Original Cookie Co was om twee redes uniek in die kompetisie. Die eerste, dit was die enigste openbare ketting uit die vyf nasionale aanspraakmakers. Tweedens was hul moedermaatskappy CNC baie gewoond daaraan om huurgeld op winkelsentrums te huur. Dit sal baie handig wees as die bou van nuwe winkelsentrums in die 1980's merkbaar tot stilstand kom.

Foto gebruik met toestemming van Richard M. Cole & amp Associates

Die Original Great American Chocolate Chip Cookie Company het egter maklik die oorlog gelei, nie net met die meeste winkels nie, maar ook met die laagste pryse. Maar vir CNC het The Original Cookie Co goed genoeg gevaar om meer as 4% van die totale oorbelle van die onderneming by te dra. Nie sleg vir 'n klein koekieswinkel en hul moedermaatskappy met 'n miljoen dollar nie.

Die oorspronklike prentjie van die koekieonderneming. Gevind op die slopingswerf van Rolling Acres Mall

Uiteindelik sou The Original Cookie Co., saam met mev. Fields, bereik word deur Capricorn Holdings, gebaseer in Greenwich, Connecticut. , gevorm is.

Teen Februarie 2002 was daar slegs 35 oorspronklike Cookie -franchises in werking, sonder die hoop op ekstra winkels.

Akron Beacon Journal – 1981

Die Original Cookie Company van Cleveland, Ohio, skryf dat dit in stryd is met hul beleid om koekie -resepte bekend te maak. ” (From The Cook's#8217s Mailbag, The Indianapolis Star, 4 Okt 1989)


Werknemer wat die koekie -resep gesteel het uit die koekbottel van € 1 (ja, dit is 'n enkele euro)

Die strafhof van Mechelen (België) het ten gunste van Bofin Biscuits beslis teen 'n voormalige produksie -assistent wat daarvan beskuldig word dat hy die assistent -direkteur van die koekiebak se skootrekenaar gesteel het. Die skootrekenaar bevat na bewering die geheime resepte van al die koekies wat deur Bofin Biscuits vervaardig is. Hierdie saak is interessant vanweë die aard van die geheime en ook in vergelyking met die van die “fig spread ”-saak wat twee weke gelede hier bespreek is. Dit bevestig ook dat sake -geheime wanbesteding nie slegs ingewikkelde aangeleenthede behels oor die nuutste tegnologie wat groot multinasionale ondernemings besit nie.

Die feite van die saak is redelik eenvoudig. Op 12 November 2013 merk die assistent-direkteur van Bofin Biscuits op dat sy skootrekenaar tydens sy afwesigheid van 6 November tot 11 November vermis geraak het. . Die kamera wat buite die assistent-direkteur se kantoor gehang het, het 'n produksie-assistent in die gang laat loop waar die kantoor geleë was, ingegaan en vertrek met iets wat duidelik onder sy jas versteek was. Tydens die verhoor weerspreek die produksie-assistent nie dat dit die persoon is wat verfilm is nie, maar hy ontken dat hy die skootrekenaar geneem het. Toe hy gevra is wat hy dan onder sy jas wegsteek, beweer hy dat hy niks onthou nie.

Vir die staatsaanklaer was dit 'n duidelike saak en hy het die hof versoek om die voormalige produksie -assistent tot 'n effektiewe gevangenisstraf van ses maande en 'n boete van 4.800 EUR te vonnis. Bofin Biscuits, wat by die verrigtinge aangesluit het deur sy huidige werknemer te dagvaar vir burgerlike besering, het 1,500 EUR gevra vir die skootrekenaar wat nog steeds vermis is, 2,500 EUR vir die tyd wat bestee is aan die herwinning van die inligting wat op die skootrekenaar gestoor is, morele skade van 500 EUR en 'n voorlopige skadevergoeding van 25.000 EUR vir die gesteelde geheime koekie -resepte.

Alhoewel die voormalige produksie -assistent steeds ontken dat hy die skootrekenaar gesteel het en hoewel daar geen beeldmateriaal was van die persoon wat die skootrekenaar geneem het nie, het die strafhof beslis dat die beelde gekombineer met die versuim om te verduidelik wat onder die jas versteek was, bewys lewer dat oud-werknemer het die skootrekenaar gesteel. Die strafhof het beslis dat die beskuldigde die vertroue waarmee Bofin Biscuits hom toegeken het, ernstig skade berokken het, dat die feite van wie hy beskuldig is, baie ernstig was en het getoon dat die voormalige werknemer geen sedelikheid het nie. Die hof het dus geweier om sy vonnis op te skort omdat dit 'n verkeerde boodskap sou stuur. Aangesien die voormalige werknemer egter geen kriminele rekord gehad het nie en op soek was na 'n nuwe werk, het die hof nie die voorstel van die staatsaanklaer gevolg om kriminele sanksies op te lê nie. Volgens die hof sou sulke sanksies by sy strafregtelike dossier gevoeg moes word, en dit sou die byna 60 -jarige beskuldigde se kans om 'n nuwe werk te kry aansienlik verminder. Die voormalige produksie -assistent is tot 80 uur gemeenskapsdiens gevonnis. Wat die burgerlike sanksies betref wat Bofin Biscuits aangevra het, het die hof 'n betaling van 2,308,48 EUR gelas. Dit dek die prys van die skootrekenaar en sagteware daarop, die tyd wat dit spandeer om die data wat op die skootrekenaar gestoor is, te herstel en die morele skade. Aangesien Bofin Biscuits nie kon bewys dat die gesteelde resepte intussen gebruik is om mededingende koekies te bemark nie, het die Strafhof slegs voorlopige skadevergoeding ter waarde van 1 simboliese euro toegestaan ​​vir diefstal van die resepte. Dit laat die moontlikheid vir Bofin Biscuits voort om die verrigtinge voort te sit as dit in die toekoms sou bewys dat die resepte inderdaad deur enige ander party as Bofin Biscuits gebruik word.

Hierdie besluit illustreer duidelik die uitdagings wat die huidige Belgiese (en Europese) regsraamwerk bied ten opsigte van die handhawing van handelsgeheime deur die strafhowe, en verduidelik waarom kriminele sake wat handelsgeheime insluit nog skaarser is as burgerlike. Alhoewel die meeste EU -lande strafregtelik aanspreeklik is vir diefstal van handelsgeheime, is sulke gevalle dikwels moeilik om te vervolg. In België kan die steel van die inligting byvoorbeeld nie strafregtelik vervolg word as 'n saak met 'n handelsgeheim nie. Slegs die gevolglike oordrag van die sogenaamde 'fabrieksgeheim' aan 'n derde is strafregtelik aanspreeklik. Selfs as 'n spesifieke saak met handelsgeheime in 'n lidstaat as 'n kriminele oortreding kwalifiseer, is daar steeds geen waarborg dat dit deur die owerheid vervolg sal word nie, gegewe die agterstand wat baie openbare aanklaers en strafhof in die gesig staar. Sodra daar 'n grensoverschrijdende aspek van die saak is, word suksesvolle strafregtelike vervolging nog meer ingewikkeld. Boonop sal strafregtelike verrigtinge nie altyd 'n afskrikwekkende effek hê nie, deels omdat effektiewe tronkstraf selde deel uitmaak van die vonnisse wat opgelê word. Die boetes en skadevergoeding is ook geneig om te laag te wees om 'n werklike afskrikwekkende effek te hê, sowel as om die koste verbonde aan die saak te vergoed.

Dit verskil op twee belangrike maniere van diefstal van handelsgeheime in die Verenigde State, soos gekodifiseer deur die Defend Trade Secrets Act. Eerstens, in hierdie geval, omdat die houer van die handelsgeheim vir 'n burgerlike besering gedagvaar het, moes die hof terselfdertyd die straf- en siviele boetes oorweeg. Dit sou nie die geval wees in die VSA waar die straf- en siviele sake in twee afsonderlike sake hanteer word nie, gewoonlik in twee afsonderlike howe. Tweedens, in die VSA kan skadevergoeding opgelê word op grond van die waarde van die verkrygde geheime. Die waarde kan beoordeel word uit verskeie oorwegings, insluitend die waarde vir die oorspronklike handelsgeheimhouer. Die skadebepaling hoef nie bewys te lewer dat die handelsgeheime deur die party wat wanbesteding gebruik, of 'n oordrag na 'n derde party gebruik word nie. Hierdie gebrek aan oordrag na 'n derde party was in hierdie saak voor die Belgiese hof.


Koekies!

Flanelbord: “Om die hoek”
Om die hoek in die bakkery
Dit was vyf lekker koekies met strooi bo -op
Daar kom (kind se naam) 'n dollar om te betaal
Hy/sy koop 'n koekie en neem dit weg
(gaan voort met vier, drie, twee en een)

Aksierym: “Koekies maak”
Ek maak koekiesdeeg, rond en om die klitsers (draai rond)
Voeg 'n bietjie meel uit 'n koppie, roer en roer die beslag (giet en roer)
Rol dit en sny dit mooi, netjies, sit dit op 'n bakplaat (soos daar staan)
Bak dit en tel dit, 1 2 3, en bedien dit vir jou vriende vir tee! (tel)
Krediet: Sunflower Storytime

Aksierym: "Wie het die koekies gesteel?"
Wie het die koekies uit die koekpot gesteel?
Kitty het die koekies uit die koekpot gesteel.
Wie ek? Ja jy!
Kan dit nie wees nie? As wie?
Krediet: Kinderjare

Vingerspel: "Pat-a-Cake"
Krediet: Kinderjare

Nog 'n uitrusting van Oriental Trading, duidelik bemark om by die Numeroff -boek te pas. Dit was 'n wonderlike idee. Dit was alles selfklevend en baie maklik om aanmekaar te sit.

Hoe dit gegaan het

Wil u 'n gewaarborgde treffer hê? Doen koekies! Kinders is mal oor koekies, en hulle was mal oor al die koekieboeke. Een van die seuntjies het saam met my '#8220If You Give a Mouse ” voorgedra. My flanelbord was baie lekker. Ek het drie keer deur “Down Around the Corner ” deurgegaan sodat elke kind 'n koekie kon koop.


Geskiedenis van koekies

In Amerika word 'n koekie beskryf as 'n dun, soet, gewoonlik klein koek. Per definisie kan 'n koekie een van 'n verskeidenheid handgemaakte, meelgebaseerde soetkoeke wees, skerp of sag. Elke land het sy eie woord vir “cookie. ” Ons weet dat koekies genoem word beskuitjies in Engeland en Australië, in Spanje hulle ’re galletas. Duitsers noem hulle keks of Plzchen vir Kersfeeskoekies, en in Italië is daar verskeie name om verskillende vorme van koekies te identifiseer, insluitend amaretti en biscotti, en so aan. Die naam koekie is afgelei van die Nederlandse woord koekje, wat beteken 'n klein of klein koek. ” Beskuitjie kom van die Latynse woord bis coctum, wat beteken "twee keer gebak".

Volgens kookkundiges was die eerste historiese rekord van koekies die gebruik daarvan as toetskoeke. 'N Klein hoeveelheid koekbeslag is gebak om die oondtemperatuur te toets.

7de eeu n.C.. Daar word vermoed dat die vroegste koek-styl koeke uit die 7de eeu nC (nou Iran) dateer, een van die eerste lande wat suiker verbou het (luukse koeke en gebak in groot en klein weergawes was bekend in die Persiese ryk) . Volgens historici het suiker sy oorsprong in die laaglande van Bengale of elders in Suidoos -Asië. Suiker versprei na Persië en dan na die oostelike Middellandse See. Met die Moslem -inval in Spanje, dan die kruistogte en die ontwikkelende speseryhandel, versprei die kooktegnieke en bestanddele van Arabië na Noord -Europa.

Vanaf die webwerf, Hoe soet was dit nie: Cane Sugar from the Ancient World to the Elizabethian Period, deur Brandy en Courtney Powers:

In 510 vC was honger soldate van keiser Darius naby die Indusrivier toe hulle 'n paar rasse ontdek wat heuning sonder bye produseer. is in 327 vC herontdek deur Alexander die Grote, wat die kultuur daarvan deur Persië versprei en in die Middellandse See ingebring het. Dit was die begin van een van die bes gedokumenteerde produkte van die Middeleeue.

Teen die einde van die 14de eeu kon 'n mens klein gevulde wafels in die strate van Parys koop. Renaissance kookboeke was ryk aan koekie resepte.


1596
– Uit die kookboek uit 1596 genoem Goode Huswife se juweel deur Thomas Dawson. Een van die vroegste kookboeke vir die groeiende middelklasse in Elizabethaanse Engeland. Dit is 'n vierkantige koekie verryk met eiergele en speserye, gebak op perkamentpapier.

Om fyn koeke te maak.- Neem fyn vloeistof en goeie Damaske-water; u mag geen ander drank hê nie, maar neem dan soet botter, twee of drie eiergeel eiers en 'n goeie hoeveelheid suiker, en 'n paar naeltjies en mace, soos u Cookes-mond sal bedien hom, en 'n klein saffraan, en 'n klein godjie met 'n lepel vol as jy te veel insit, dan kom dit op, sny dit in vierkante, lek dit na die loopgrawe en prik dit goed, en laat jou oond goed gevee word en dit op papier lê en sit dit dan in die oond. Moet hulle nie verbrand as hulle drie of vier dae oud is nie, hoe beter word hulle.

Namate mense die wêreld begin verken het, het koekies (harde bakke) die ideale reisvoedsel geword, want dit het lank gebly, maar Hardtack was 'n draagbare voedsel wat 'n lang opbergingsduur het en ideaal was vir reis. Eeue lank was 'n skeepsbeskuitjie, 'n ysteragtige kraker, aan boord van enige skip wat die hawe verlaat het, want dit kan maande duur (selfs jare onder die regte omstandighede).

Gedurende die 17de en 18de eeu in Europa was bak 'n sorgvuldig beheerde beroep, bestuur deur 'n reeks gildes of professionele verenigings. Om 'n bakker te word, moes mense jare van 'n vakleerlingskap voltooi en deur die geledere van vakleerlinge, gesinne en uiteindelik meesterbakkers werk. Deur gilde te hê, kan die owerheid die hoeveelheid en kwaliteit van gebakte produkte maklik reguleer. Namate tegnologie tydens die Industriële Revolusie in die 19de eeu verbeter het, het die bakkers se vermoë om 'n wye reeks soet en hartige koekies te maak vir kommersiële gebruik, ook toegeneem. Alhoewel daar meer variëteite beskikbaar is, het die noodsaaklike bestanddele van koekies nie verander nie. Hierdie bestanddele is koringmeel, wat minder proteïene bevat as die meel wat gebruik word om brood, suiker en vette te bak, soos botter en olie.

1615Die Engelse Hus-wife, deur Gervase Markham, het twee resepte vir Jumbles:

Om die beste mengelmoes te maak, neem die wit van drie eiers en klits dit goed, en haal die sluier af, neem 'n bietjie melk en 'n pond fyn koringmeel en suiker fyn gesif, en 'n paar anys goed gevryf en gedroog en dan werk almal so styf as wat jy kan, en maak dit in die vorm wat jy wil, en bak dit in 'n sagte oond op wit papiere.

Om gemors meer fyn en nuuskierig te maak as eersgenoemde, neem 'n pond suiker na die smaak van die macaroon, klop dit fyn, neem soveel fyn koringmeel en meng dit, neem dan twee blankes en een eiergeel van 'n eier , 'n halwe kwart pond geblansjeerde amandels, klop dit dan baie fyn saam met 'n halwe skottel soet botter en 'n lepel rooswater, en werk dit met 'n bietjie room tot 'n baie stywe pasta, rol dit dan uit soos u wil; en hierby moet u ook, as u wil, 'n paar gedroogde anysblare byvoeg, fyn gevryf en in die pasta gestrooi, en ook koljandersaad.

1671– In die 1671 -uitgawe van Die kas van die geleerdes Sir Kenelme Digbie Kt geopen: waardeur verskeie maniere gevind word om Metheglin, Sider, Cherry-Wine en amp saam met uitstekende aanwysings vir kookkuns te ontdek: asook vir die bewaring, bewaring, snoepery en ampc., deur Sir Kenelme Digbie (LET WEL: Werklike aanhaling):

Uitstekende klein koeke – Neem drie pond baie fyn blom goed gedroog deur die vuur, en sit daarby 'n half pond brood Suiker gesif in 'n baie fyn sif en droog Drie pond Currnats goed gewas en droog in 'n lap en deur die vuur gestook Neutmuskaat en as jy wil, drie lepels sak. As u die pasta goed bewerk het, moet u dit in 'n lap sit en in 'n skottel voor die vuur sit totdat dit warm is. Maak dan op in klein koeke en prik hulle vol gate wat jy kan bak in 'n oop oond. Giet dit dan met suiker. Die koeke moet handel oor die grootheid van 'n handbreedte en dun: van die suikerkoeke wat by Barnet verkoop word.

Die Engelse, Skotse en Nederlandse immigrante het oorspronklik die eerste koekies na die Verenigde State gebring. Ons eenvoudige botterkoekies lyk sterk soos die Engelse teekoeke en die Scotch shortbread. Die suidelike koloniale huisvrou van Amerika was baie trots op haar koekies, amper altyd eenvoudig genoem teekoeke. Dit is dikwels gegeur met niks meer as die beste botter nie, soms met die toevoeging van 'n paar druppels rooswater.

In vroeëre Amerikaanse kookboeke het koekies geen eie ruimte gekry nie, maar dit is aan die einde van die koekhoofstuk vermeld. Hulle is genoem met name soos Jumbles, Plunkets en Cry Babies. Die name was uiters raaiselagtig en grillerig

1796 – In die kookboek uit 1796 Amerikaanse kookkuns: of, die kuns om varkies aan te trek, vis, pluimvee en groente, en die beste maniere om blaardeegpastei, pasteie, terte, poedings, vla en blikkies en allerhande koeke te maak, van die keiserlike lood tot gewone koek deur Amelia Simmons, bevat sy twee resepte vir koekies. Die een het eenvoudig “Cookies ” genoem en die ander een “Chriftmas Cookey. ” Dit was die eerste kookboek wat deur 'n Amerikaner geskryf is en in die Verenigde State gepubliseer is (LET WEL: Werklike aanhalings).

Koekies – Een pond fugar kook vloeibaar in 'n halwe liter water, gooi goed af en laat afkoel, voeg 1 teelepel perlafh by, ingedruk in melk, dan twee en 'n half pond vier, vryf 4 gram botter en twee groot lepels fyngedrukte koljandervoer, natgemaak met bogenoemde, maak 'n halwe duim rolletjies en sny dit in die vorm van 'n pluimbak, bak vyftien of twintig minute in 'n flak oond en#8211 goeie drie weke.

Kersfees kookkuns – Vir drie pond meel, strooi 'n teekoppie fyn gepoeierde koljandervleis, vryf 'n pond botter en 'n half pond fugar in, skei 'n teelepel pêrel in 'n teekoppie melk, kniel goed saam , rol 'n driekwart duim dik en sny dit in 'n vorm, en maak 'n goeie koek, bak vyftien of twintig minute hard en droog op 'n stewige plek, as dit in 'n noordelike pot gesit word, en 'n droë kelder of 'n klam kamer, hulle sal fyner, sagter en beter wees as hulle maande oud is.

Daar is honderde op honderde koekie resepte in die Verenigde State. Die geografiese ontwikkeling van die Verenigde State word weerspieël in gewilde koekie -resepte. Die uitbreiding van die spoorweg in die vroeë 1800's het kokke toegang tot kokosneute uit die suide gegee. Later in die eeu is lemoene uit die Weste in baie resepte ingesluit. Rond die eeuwisseling het die Kellogg -broers in Michigan koringvlokkies uitgevind en koekies is gemaak met graanprodukte. In die dertigerjare, met die koms van elektriese yskaste, bereik yskaskoekies nuwe hoogtes van gewildheid. Tans is daar honderde op honderde koekie resepte in die Verenigde State. Geen enkele boek kon die resepte vir al die verskillende soorte koekies bevat nie.

Dierekoekers of dierekoekies – Inligting oor die geskiedenis van Animal Crackers kom uit Out of the Cracker Barrel: Van Animal Crackers tot ZuZu's, deur William Cahn [Simon & amp; Schuster: New York] 1969:

Dierekoekers is geskep en het baie jare voor die koms van NBC roem verwerf. In die begin is hulle net genoem “Animals. ” Hulle is uit Engeland ingevoer toe “fancy ” gebak hier die eerste keer begin aanvraag is. In die laaste deel van die negentiende eeu is dit plaaslik vervaardig deur Herfield & amp Ducker in Brooklyn sowel as Vandeveer & amp; Holmes Biscuit Company in New York. Beide ondernemings het uiteindelik deel geword van die New York Biscuit Company, en “Animals ” was 'n belangrike item.

Toe “Animals ” deur NBC aangeneem is, is hul naam verander na “Barnum ’s Animals Crackers, ” vernoem na P. T. Barnum, showman en sirkuseienaar wat gedurende hierdie era so beroemd was. Barnum's Animal Crackers het die nasie 'n nuwe soort dierekraker voorsien, vervaardig in 'n klein vierkantige boks wat soos 'n sirkushok lyk, met 'n band aan die bokant om dit maklik te dra. . . Gou het Animal (the s is fallen) Crackers deel geword van die Amerikaanse geur en van byna 'n baie Amerikaanse huishouding.

In totaal was daar 37 verskillende soorte dierekoekers sedert 1902. Die huidige 17 variëteite klappers is tiere, poema, kamele, renosters, kangoeroes, seekoeie, bison, leeus, hiënas, sebras, olifante, skape, bere, gorillas, ape , robbe en kameelperde. Daar is 22 klappers per boks.

Animal Crackers het so deel van die Amerikaanse lewe geword dat Christopher Morley (1890-1957), Amerikaanse humoris, dramaturg, digter, essayis en redakteur die volgende gedig geskryf het:

Animal Crackers

Deur Christopher Morley

Dierekoekers en kakao om te drink,
Ek dink dit is die beste aandete
Toe ek groot is en kan kry wat ek wil
Ek dink ek sal altyd hierop aandring.
Wat kies jy as jy 'n bederf aanbied?
As ma sê: '#8220Wat sou u die lekkerste wou eet? ”
Is dit wafels en stroop, of kaneelroosterbrood?
Dit is die kakao en diere waarvoor ek die meeste hou!

Die kombuis is die lekkerste plek wat ek ken
Die ketel sing, die stoof brand,
En daar in die skemer, hoe jolig om te sien
Die kakao en diere wat op my wag.

Pa en ma eet later in die staat,
Met Mary om vir hulle te kook, wag Susan
Maar hulle het nie naastenby soveel plesier as ek nie
Wie eet in die kombuis met verpleegster by
En pa het eenkeer gesê: hy wil graag ek wees
Weereens kakao en diere vir tee!


Anzac Biscui t
– Dit is 'n Australiese weerskoekie, ook bekend as 'n Anzac Wafer of 'n Anzac Tile. Dit is in wese 'n harde beskuitjie (sien harde beskuitjie hieronder) met 'n lang raklewe en 'n plaasvervanger vir brood. Die koekies is baie hard, en soldate verkies om dit fyn te maak en as pap te gebruik. Vandag staan ​​hulle bekend as Australië se nasionale koekie. ANZAC -dag word op 25 April in Australië en Nieu -Seeland gevier. Rondom ANZAC -dag word hierdie koekies ook gereeld deur veterane -organisasies gebruik om fondse in te samel vir die versorging en welsyn van bejaarde oorlogsveterane.

1815-1832 – Die resep vir hierdie koekies kan teruggevoer word na Skotland en die tradisionele Skotse haverkoeke, ook bekend as bannokke, dun, plat ongesuurde haverkoeke wat op 'n rooster gebak word. Tydens die Skotse immigrasie na Australië en Nieu -Seeland in die vroeë 1800's, was dit net natuurlik dat die Skotse vroue hul resepte vir hawerkoeke saamgebring het. Hulle het waarskynlik voorraad gehad by die skepe waarin hulle gekom het. |

1914-1918 Gedurende die Eerste Wêreldoorlog (1914-1918) was die vroue, moeders en vriendinne van die Australiese en Nieu-Seelandse soldate bekommerd oor die voedingswaarde van die voedsel wat aan hul mans verskaf word. 'N Kos was nodig wat die lang reis per pos na die oorlogsfront na ANZAC -troepe wat oorsee dien, sou oorleef. Die koekies het twee maande op see geneem, sonder verkoeling, om die soldate by Gallipoli te bereik. Op 25 April 1915 het die ANZACs (Australiese en Nieu -Seelandse weermagkorps) by Gallipoli geland en die ergste nederlaag in die Australiese militêre geskiedenis gely. Die koekies is eers gebel Soldate se koekies, maar na die landing op Gallipoli het hulle die naam ANZAC Biscuits gekry. Om dit vars en skerp te hou, is dit in ou lugdigte blikke verpak.


Biscotti
(bee-SKAWT-tee)-In Italiaans beteken biscotti, “twee gaar. ” Die woord biscotto is afgelei van bis (twee keer) en cotto (gaar). Biscotti is ook die algemene term vir koekies in Italiaans. Die deeg word in blokkies gevorm en tot goudbruin gebak. Die hout word dan in skywe gesny en die individuele biscotti word weer gebak om hulle kenmerkend droog te maak. Die rakleeftyd van biscotti is drie tot vier maande sonder preserveermiddels of bymiddels. Ander lande het hul weergawe van hierdie koekie – Nederlandse beskuit, Franse biscotte en die Duitse zwieback.

Volgens die Arnott Biscuit Company:

Een van die vroegste verslae dateer uit die tweede eeu se beskuitjies. Beskuitjie kom van die Latynse woord ‘bis coctum ’ wat beteken, ‘twee gebak ’. Destyds was koekies ’ ongesuurde, harde, dun wafels met 'n lae waterinhoud. Omdat dit baie min vog bevat, was dit die ideale voedsel om op te slaan, want dit sou nie vinnig muf word nie.

Vroeë Seaman se koekies, ook bekend as hard tack, was waarskynlik die eerste weergawe van biscotti. Dit was die perfekte kos vir matrose wat maande lank op see op lang seereise was. Die beskuitjies is deeglik gebak om die vog uit te trek, en word 'n krakeragtige voedsel wat bestand is teen vorm. Biscotti was 'n gunsteling van Christopher Columbus wat daarop staatgemaak het op sy lang seereis in die 15de eeu. Geskiedkundiges glo dat die eerste Italiaanse biscotti die eerste keer in die 13de eeu in Toskane gebak is in die stad Prato.

1596 – Resep vir 'n koekie wat soortgelyk is aan biscotti uit die kookboek uit 1596 Goode Huswife se juweel deur Thomas Dawson. Dit is 'n resep vir 'n anysaad-biscotti-soetgoed wat in die oond droog word, net soos moderne biscotti (LET WEL: Werklike aanhaling):

Om fyn broodbrood te maak, neem 'n pond fyn blom en 'n pond suiker en meng dit, 'n kwart pond Annis-saadjies, vier eiers, twee of drie lepels vol rosewater. erde panne. En klop dit met 'n greintjie hout twee uur lank, vul dan die vorms halfvol, die vorms van blikkies en steek dit dan in u oond, as 't ware vir bedrogbrood en laat dit een staan anderhalf uur: jy moet jou vorms met botter salf voordat jy die vulsel in sit, en as jy dit opneem, sny dit in dun skyfies en droog dit in die oond; bodem.

Brownies – 'n Sjokoladekoekie. Die naam kom van die diepbruin kleur van die koekie.

Die oorsprong van die sjokolade -brownies is onseker, maar dit word vermoed dat dit per ongeluk ontstaan ​​het as gevolg van 'n vergeetagtige kok wat nalaat om bakpoeier by die sjokoladekoekbeslag te voeg. Sears, Roebuck -katalogus in 1897 het die eerste bekende resep vir die brownies gepubliseer, en dit het vinnig baie gewild geword (so gewild dat 'n brownie -mengsel selfs in die katalogus verkoop is). Volgens sommige bronne was dit 'n resep vir 'n melasse lekkergoed wat bloot brownies genoem word. Die naam vereer die elfkarakters wat destyds in gewilde boeke, verhale, tekenprente en verse deur Palmer Cox verskyn het, en die Eastman Kodak Brownie -kamera is ook na hierdie elwe vernoem.

Volgens die kookboekskrywer en kookkuns -historikus, Jean Anderson, in Die kookboek van die Amerikaanse eeu: die gewildste resepte van die 20ste eeu, verskyn die twee vroegste gepubliseerde resepte vir sjokoladebruintjies in kookboeke in Boston, en die eerste in 'n 1906-uitgawe van Die Boston Cooking-School Cook Book onder redaksie van Fannie Merritt Farmer.

Die tweede resep verskyn in 1907 Lowney's Cook Book, geskryf deur Maria Willet Howard. Me Howard was 'n beskermende Fannie Farmer. Sy het 'n ekstra eier en 'n ekstra vierkant sjokolade by die Boston Cooking-School-resep gevoeg, wat 'n ryker, meer sjokolade-brownie gemaak het. Sy noem die resep Bangor Brownies.

Chocolate Chip Cookie – Vandag bly die sjokoladekoekie 'n gunsteling keuse onder koekiekenners. Die term “toll house ” het deel geword van die Amerikaanse taal.

1937 Die eerste sjokoladekoekies is in 1937 uitgevind deur Ruth Graves Wakefield (1905-1977), van Whitman, Massachusetts, wat die Toll House Restaurant bestuur het. Die Toll House Restaurant -terrein was eens 'n ware tolhuis wat in 1709 gebou is, waar passasiers op die verhoogkooi 'n maaltyd geëet het terwyl perde verander is en 'n tol geëis is vir die gebruik van die snelweg tussen Boston en New Bedford, 'n welvarende walvisvangstad. Die Wakefields verkoop die restaurant in 1966. Dit het op Oujaarsaand in 1984 afgebrand.

Een van die gunsteling resepte van Ruth was 'n ou resep vir koekies van Butter Drop Do ” wat dateer uit die koloniale tyd. Die resep het vereis dat bakkersjokolade gebruik word. Op 'n dag was Ruth sonder die nodige bestanddeel. Having a bar of semisweet chocolate on hand, she chopped it into pieces and stirred the chunks of chocolate into the cookie dough. She assumed that the chocolate would melt and spread throughout each cookie. Instead the chocolate bits held their shape and created a sensation. She called her new creation the Toll House Crunch Cookies. The Toll House Crunch Cookies became very popular with guests at the inn, and soon her recipe was published in a Boston newspaper, as well as other papers in the New England area. Word of the cookie spread and it became popular.

1939 – This cookie became known nationally when Betty Crocker used it in her radio series on “Famous Foods From Famous Eating Places.” Ruth approached the Nestle company and together, they reached an agreement that allowed Nestle to print what would become the Toll House Cookie recipe on the wrapper of the Semi-Sweet Chocolate Bar. The company developed a scored semisweet chocolate bar with a small cutting implement so that making the chocolate chunks would be easier. According to the story, part of this agreement included supplying Ruth with all of the chocolate she could use to make her delicious cookies for the rest of her life.

1940s – Ruth sold all legal rights to the use of the Toll House trademark to Nestle. On August 25, 1983, the Nestle Company lost its exclusive right to the trademark in federal court. Toll house is now a descriptive term for a cookie.

1997 – A third grade class from Somerset, Massachusetts proposed that the chocolate chip cookie be designated the official cookie of the Commonwealth. The chocolate chip cookie was designated the official cookie of the Commonwealth on July 9, 1997 under the General Laws of Massachusetts.

1996, 1999, en 2003

  • A group of fourth-grade students at Caln Elementary School in Coatesville introduced a resolution to designate the chocolate chip cookie as the official state cookie of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1996.
  • Senate Bill 271 was introduced on February 1, 1999 to designate and adopt the chocolate chip cookie as the official cookie of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The House is supporting the Nazareth sugar cookie, in a bill sponsored by eight representatives, including Moon Township’s state Rep. and Senator-elect John Pippy.
  • Another Senate Bill 320 was introduced by Thompson, Helfrick, M. White, Greenleaf, Rafferty, and C. Williams on February 13, 2003 to designate and adopt the chocolate chip cookie asthe official cookie of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The House and Senate have been in disagreement or debate since these bills were introduced. The bills have been tabled.


Fig Newton
– There are two claims on who invented the Fig Newton Cookies:

1892 – The Nabisco Company has maintained that the Fig Newton was invented in 1891 by Philadelphia inventor, James Henry Mitchell. Mitchell is said to have invented the duplex dough-sheeting machines and funnels that made the jam-filled cookies possible. This machine was patented in January of 1892. The cookies were named for Newton, MA. Information on history of Animal Crackers is from Out of the Cracker Barrel: From Animal Crackers to ZuZu’s, by William Cahn [Simon & Schuster: New York] 1969:

In 1892 Mitchell applied for a patent for his new machine, which was granted. Although he had no name for his ‘pie,’ he thought the idea might be of value in commercial baking. So in 1892 he persuaded officials of the Kennedy Biscuit Works, which had recently become affiliated with the New York Biscuit Company, to try out his new machine, which he shipped to Cambridgeport. Mitchell personally installed the machine and supervised its functioning. The professional bakers tasted the final result, found it good and went away impressed. But promotion could not start until a name was selected. The exciting new product of the Mitchell machine needed some such name. Later an assistant to James Hazen, manager of the Cambridgeport bakery, recalled, “The name was taken from the name of the town Newton-a suburb of Boston.” When the name was selected for this new product, it reflected a practice–by Mr. Hazen, who was manager of this plant–of using the names of towns and cities in the vicinity of Boston.

1899 – The website of Historic Roser Park, located inSt Petersburg, Florida claims that Charles Martin Roser (1864-1937), also known as C. M. Roser had a cookie and candy manufacturing company that made Fig Newton Cookies. Legend has it that Roser sold Nabisco the rights to his fig cookies for 1 million dollars, the modern equivalent of about 19 million. To this date, no information has been found to back up this claim.

Fortune Cookie – A tasty Chinese-American wafer cookie with a piece of paper inside with a “fortune” written on it.

Some historians think that the inspiration for Fortune Cookies come from the 12th and 13th centuries when Chinese soldiers slipped rice paper messages into mooncakes to help coordinate their defense against Mongolian invaders. According to legend, the Mongolians had no taste for lotus nut paste. Because of this, the Chinese hid the message containing the date of the uprising and the instructions coordinating the uprising in the middle of their Moon Cakes (replacing the yolk with secret messages). Patriotic revolutionary, Chu Yuan Chang took on the disguise of a Taoist priest and entered occupied walled cities handing out Moon Cakes. These were the instructions to coordinate the uprising which successfully formed the basis of the Ming Dynasty.

It is also a Chinese custom when children are born for the families to send out cake rolls with a message inside announcing the birth of the child. For almost 40 years, the fortune cookies were made using chopsticks.

The messages in the first fortune cookies were simple proverbs or bits of Scripture. By the 1930s, English variations on Confucian logic crept in. Some fortune writers took an American slant, lifting bits from Poor Richard’s Almanac. Today, the fortune these cookies carry can contain messages from Biblical verses, romantic messages, corporate messages, and many more.

1900s – Makota Hagiwara, a landscape architect and caretaker of the Japanese Tea Gardens from the early 1900’s until the outbreak of World War II, made Fortune Cookies in Los Angeles in the early 1900s. Using a Japanese rice cookie called “tsjiura sembei”, he created cookies bearing thank you notes, which helped him in a dispute with the city’s mayor. He displayed his creation at the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exhibition held in San Francisco. The Court of Historical Reviews and Appeals, a San Francisco mock court, ruled that San Francisco is the rightful “fortune cookie capital of the world” in 1983.

1920 – Another story says that a Cantonese immigrant, David Jung (a Los Angeles baker) began making cookies with thin slips of paper inside sometime around 1920. Jung handed out these cookies, which contained words of encouragement, to the poor and homeless people on the streets. He later founded the Hong Kong Noodle Company and produced cookies with fortunes inside.

1960 – Edward Louie, owner of the Lotus Fortune Cookie Company in San Francisco, invented a machine that could fold the cookies in half a lot faster. It is a matter of debate as to where in American these cookies were first made.

Hardtack – A hard square biscuit or cracker that is made with flour and water only (unleavened and unsalted bread). Also called pilot biscuit, pilot bread, sea biscuit, en ship biscuit. Since it’s very dry, it can be stored for years without refrigeration. People can live for quite a while on just bread and water. Hardtack is eaten by itself, dipped in coffee, or crumbled into soups. Inexpensive, stable, and easy to transport, hardtack was a staple in military life throughout most of our history. It was also the most convenient food for soldiers, explorers, and pioneers.

Dandy funk – Also called Danderfunk. A pudding made by sailors using crumbled hardtack, fat, and molasses.

History is not clear when people first began to make hardtack, but it’s quite probable that its history began in prehistory. Prehistoric people boiled grains they cooked grains and added vegetables and herbs to the mixture and sometimes they ground it into a powder, mixed it with water, and dried it on a hot stone. Six thousand year-old unleavened biscuits have been found in Switzerland.

Hardtack was a part of the staple diet of English and American sailors for many centuries. Christopher Columbus took unleavened bread with him on his journeys. Sailors referred to it as sea biscuit, sea bread, ship biscuit, Midshipman’s nuts, and pilot bread. During the early settlement of North America, the exploration of the continent, the American Revolution, and on through the American Civil War, armies were kept alive with hardtack.

During the American Civil War (1861-1865), a soldier in the army, both north and south was usually issued one half pound of beans or peas, bacon, pickled beef, compressed mixed vegetables and one pound of hard tack. Too hard to be eaten whole, it was generally broken up with a rock or rifle butt, placed in the cheek pocket and softened with saliva enough to be chewed and swallowed. The hardtack was also soaked in water and then fried in bacon grease to soften it. The soldiers called the biscuits “sheet iron crackers”, “teeth dullers”, or “worm castles” in references to the weevils and maggots all too often found in the hardtack boxes. It appears that it was first called hardtack by the Union Army of the Potomac although the name spread to other units, it was generally referred to as hard bread by the armies of the West.

Vroue – Oval-shaped cookies or cakes that are also known around the world as Boudoir biscuits, sponge biscuits, spons vingers, Naples biscuits, Savoy biscuits (Savoiardi) and biscuits a la cuiller.

11th Century – The recipe, which has changed little in nine hundred years, dates from the House of Savoy in the eleventh century France. Historians seem to think that the recipe was carried throughout Europe by the marriages of the descendents of Bertha of Savoy (1051-1081) to the royalty of Europe.

18th Century – Folklore has it that Czar Peter the Great of Russia (1689-1725) and his wife, the peasant empress Catherine, so enjoyed Ladyfingers when visiting Louis XV of France (1774), that they purchased the Baker and sent him immediately to Saint Petersburg.

1901 – Specialty Bakers Inc., a small bakery company on the banks of the Susquehanna River in Marysville, Pennsylvania, is known as “The Ladyfinger Specialist.” Virtually all the commercially available Ladyfingers in America have been baked by Specialty Bakers since 1901.

Macaroon (mak-uh-ROON) – A small round cookie that has a crisp crust and a soft interior. It may be made from almonds, though coconut is common in the U.S. They may also be flavored with coffee, chocolate, or spices.

1792 – They originated in an Italian Monastery around 1792. During the French Revolution (1789-1799), the sequestration of monasteries in southern Europe were heavy blows to the Carmelites Order. The Carmelite nuns to pay for their housing when they needed asylum during the French Revolution baked these cookies. According to some historians, the Carmelite nuns followed the principle: “Almonds are good for girls who do not eat meat.” During the Revolution, two nuns who hid in the village called Nancy, made and sold macaroons. They became known as the “Macaroon Sisters.”

In 1799, the Carmetlite community, as did the whole Catholic Church and especially religious life, began experiencing a series of difficulties and persecution that lasted throughout the19th century. In those years, throughout the succession of historical events, the nuns, constantly harassed, had to struggle and suffer much so that their monastery would not be suppressed or they themselves expelled from it. Today in the city Antequera, Spain, the order sells pastries and bread to the public, but are not allowed visual contact with the outside world, so the transactions are carried out by means of a bell-rope and a revolving wooden door.

Amaretti (ah-mah-REHT-tee) – An Italian almond macaroon cookie. The Italian word “amaro” means “bitter,” and the literal translation of “amaretti” is “the little bitter ones.” They are called amaretti because they are flavored with bitter almonds. Francesco Moriodo, pastry chef at the court of Savoy, created them in the mid-17th century.

Nazareth Sugar Cookie – Also called Amish Sugar Cookies. The recipe was perfected by the Moravians, Protestant settlers from Germany who made Nazareth their home during the mid-1700s. The Nazareth area of Pennsylvania has provided much of the stimulus for the founding, settlement and growth of the commonwealth. The sturdy sugar cookie is baked in the shape of a Keystone, the state’s symbol .

2001 – House Bill 1892 was introduced on September 5, 2001 to designate and adopt the Nazareth sugar cookie as the official cookie of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. A delegate of nine people from the city of Nazareth traveled to Harrisburg to deliver 350 cookies to the desks legislators, the Governor, and the Lieutenant Governor. (See Chocolate Chip Cookies to read about the debate.)

Palmier (pahlm-YAY) – A cookie made of sheets of puff pastry that are rolled in sugar and folded to resemble palm leaves, then baked until the sugar becomes caramelized.

Grondboontjiebotterkoekies – Hand rolled dough containing peanut butter. Dough is rolled into a ball and then flattened with the tins of a fork.

George Washington Carver (1864-1943), an African-American educator, botanist and scientist from Alabama’s Tuskegee Institute, began to promote the peanut as a replacement for the cotton crop which had been destroyed by the boil weevil. By 1903, he developed hundreds of uses for peanuts in recipes. In his 1916 Research Bulletin called How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption, he has a three recipes for peanut cookies calling for crushed/chopped peanuts as an ingredient.

In 1922, Joseph L. Rosefield began selling a number of brands of peanut butter in California. These peanut butters were churned like butter so they were smoother than the gritty peanut butters of the day. He soon received the first patent for a shelf-stable peanut butter which would stay fresh for up to a year because the oil didn’t separate from the peanut butter. One of the first companies to adopt this new process was Swift & Company for its E.K. Pond peanut butter – renamed Peter Pan in 1928. In 1932, Rosefield had a dispute with Peter Pan and began producing peanut butter under the Skippy label the following year. Rosefield created the first crunchy style peanut butter two years later by adding chopped peanuts into creamy peanut butter at the end of the manufacturing process.

It is not until the early 1930s that peanut butter was listed as an ingredient in cookies. The 1933 edition of Pillsbury’s Balanced Recipes by Mary Ellis Ames, Director of the Pillsbury Cooking Service, contains a recipe for Peanut Butter Balls. It instructs the cook to roll the dough into balls and press them down with the tines of a fork. This practice is still common in America today.

Pizzelle (pit-sell)- Pizzelle’s come from Italy. Pizzelle are also known as Italian wafer cookies and there are various ways which to spell pizzelle such as piazelle, piazella, pizzele en pizelle. The name comes from the Italian word pizze for round and flat. Many different cultures have adapted this cookie and re-named it accordingly. In Scandinavia they are also known as Lukken and the Krumcake is baked using a similar iron as the pizzelle.

In some parts of Italy, the irons would be made with family crests on them which would be passed down to each generation.

Pizzelles are the oldest known cookie and originated in the mid-section of Italy. They were made many years ago for the “Festival of the Snakes” also known as the “Feast Day of San Domenico” in the village of Colcullo in the Italian region of Abruzzo. This village in Italy that was once overrun with snakes, and they were chased out. Afterwards the village celebrated with pizzelle. Sweet bread pancakes, know as pizzelles, are sold in an auction, to receive the offers of the faithful: they will be on show during the procession with the statue of the saint enveloped by live snakes.

According to an article from the Lonely Planet Publications on the Festival of the Snakes:

Legend has it that the mountainous and bucolic area around Abruzzo was once so infested by snakes that life tended to the short, sharp and brutal rather than the long and cheerful. The local shepherds, back in 700 BC, appealed to Apollo for help. His advice was to capture the snakes, domesticate them by draping them around his statue and then release them into the bush again.

Curiously, this seemed to work and the ritual has been replayed ever since. Somewhere along the way, however, the fickle mortals dumped the old Greek gods for the newish Christian gods and indulged in a bit of historical revisionism. Apollo became Saint Domenica and a few touches of modernity, like fireworks, were added to the ritual.

Celebrations begin on St Joseph’s Day, 19 March, when the first snakes of the season are netted and caged. Two months later, on the first Thursday in May, the village is stirred by an 8am revelry call of fireworks, followed by a traditional mass. After the mass, the statue of Saint Domenica is hauled through the streets of Colcullo, where villagers drape the captured serpents, boa-like, around the stone neck of Saint Domenica.

This ritual and the procession is usually accompanied by a noisy band of villagers, barking dogs and merry-makers. At the edge of the village the squirming mass is released back into the bush and the villagers, so it is said, are immune from snake bites for another year.

Pizzelles is similar in meaning to Pizza. In Salle, in the Abruzzi region of Italy, there is a festival, which takes place in which pizzelle plays a large role. The feast is held in July to honor Beato Roberto a twelfth-century monk. When the feast begins, people bring food to the town square and some people attach pizzelle to tree branches and proceed down the street with them.”

Pizzelle makers are typically called irons, because the first ones were just that — irons that were forged by blacksmiths. Women would go to local blacksmiths, and the blacksmiths would make them and work in a design for them.

In some parts of Italy, the irons would be made with family crests on them which would be passed down to each generation.

To many Italians, there is no feast without pizzelles.


Snickerdoodles
– Traditional snickerdoodles are coated with cinnamon sugar before being baked.

Cookies as we know them in America were originally brought to the United States by our English, Scottish, and Dutch immigrants. Earlier names for cookies such as Snickerdoodles and Cry Babies originated with the New England states. Even with its early history, cookies did not become popular until about a hundred years ago.

In earlier American cookbooks, cookies were given no space of their own but were listed at the end of the cake chapter. They were called by such names as “jumbles,” “Plunkets,” and “Cry Babies.” The names were extremely puzzling and whimsical. New England cooks seem to have had a penchant for giving odd names to their dishes, apparently for no other reason than the fun of saying them. Snickerdoodles comes from a tradition of this sort that includes Graham Jakes, Jolly Boys, Branble, Tangle Breeches, and Kinkawoodles.

Springerle (SPRING-uhr-lee) – These have been and still are traditional Christmas cookies in Bavaria and Austria for centuries. Springerle are white, anise-flavored cookies, made from a simple egg-flour-sugar dough. Usually rectangular or circular in shape, they have a picture or design stamped on the top. The images are imprinted with specially carved rolling pins or flat molds (Springerle presses, or boards). After the cookies are baked, the designs are sometimes enhanced with edible food colors–or with tempera or acrylic paints, if the cookies are to be used as decorations. Hartshorn is the traditional leavening (it is an ammonia compound).

These cookies are made with a leavening agent called ammonium carbonate, or baking ammonia. Ammonium carbonate is a byproduct of hartshorn, a substance extracted from deer antlers (harts horn). This leavener is the precursor of today’s baking powder and baking soda. If you sample the dough of these cookies, you will be able to taste the ammonia, but it will completely evaporate out when the cookies are baked.

The name Springerle comes from an old German dialect and means “little knight” or “jumping horse.” Historians trace these cookies back to the Julfest, a midwinter celebration of pagan Germanic tribes. Julfest ceremonies included the sacrificing of animals to the gods, in hope that such offerings would bring a mild winter and an early spring. Poor people who could not afford to kill any of their animals gave token sacrifices in the form of animal-shaped breads and cookies. Vestiges of these pagan practices survive in the baking of shaped-and-stamped German Christmas cookies such as Lebkuchen, Spekulatius, Frankfurter Brenten, and Springerle.

Scenes from the Bible were some of the earliest images portrayed on the springerle molds and were used to educate those who couldn’t read or write. Eventually, other scenes were carved and the cookies soon reflected images of holidays, events, and scenes from every day life. The cookies were also used to celebrate births, weddings, and used as betrothal tokens. Exchanging springerle during the holidays was a common practice very much like we exchange cards today.

The oldest known springerle mold from Switzerland was carved from wood in the 14th century. This round shaped mold pictures the Easter lamb, and originates from the St. Katharine monastery in Will St. Gallen. It is now in the collection of the Swiss national museum in Zurich, Switzerland.

Tuile (TWEEl) – French for “tile.” A tuile is a thin, crisp cookie that is placed over a rounded object (like a rolling pin or a mold) while still hot from the oven. Once cooled and stiff, the cookie resembles a curved roof tile.

The classic tuile is made with crushed almonds but the cookie can also be flavored with orange, lemon, vanilla or other nuts. Tuiles belong to a category of small fancy cookies, pastries, or confections called “petits fours.”

And All The King’s Men, Fine Springerle Cookies.

Anzac Biscuit, Australian War Memorial.

Baking History, Joyofbaking web site, by Stephanie Jaworski.

Carmelites, Origin and Early History, The Free Dictionary.

Crusty debate rages in Legislature over official state cookie, by Bill Tolland, 3/14/03, Beaver County Times and Allegheny Times newspapers.

Cultural Icon: Fortune Cookies, by Alexandria Abramian, Hemisphere Magazine, 1999 United Airlines.

Edible Art: Springerle Cookies for Christmas, by Sharon Hudgins, December, 2001.

Festival of Snakes, Italy, Lonely Planet Publications.

Food Lover’s Companion: Comprehensive Definitions of over 4000 Food, Wine and Culinary Terms, by Sharon Tyler Herbst, Barron’s Educational Series, Inc. 1995, Second Edition.

Food Timeline History Notes: Cookies, Crackers & Biscuits, by Lynne Olver, editor Food Timeline, Morris County Library.

Fortune cookie US invention, by Ellie Parvin, Golden Gater Online.

Four centuries of Spousal love for Christ, Catholic Information Network (CIN), Eternal Word Television Network.

From Hardtack to Home Fries: An Uncommon History of American Cooks and Meals, by Barbara Haber, Free Press, April, 2002.

How Sweet It Was: Cane Sugar from the Ancient World to the Elizabethian Period, by Brandy and Courtney Powers.

How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption, by George Washington Carver, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, Seventh Edition 1940.

In the Chips – The Complete Chocolate Chip Cookbook, by Peggy Mellody and Linda Rosenbloom, Rawson Associates, New York, 1985.

Origins of Springerle Molds, is-Paradies Olten.

Moravian Square, Heritage Newsletter, Her It Age, Volume 8, No. 3, Summer 2001.

Out of the Cracker Barrel: From Animal Crackers to ZuZu’s, by William Cahn [Simon & Schuster:New York] 1969.

Pages from The Closet of Sir Kenelme Digbie Kt Opened.

Stefan’s Florilegium, cookies-msg, by Mark Harris.

The Arab Contribution to Civilisation, Arab World Institute, Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris.

The First American Cookbook: A Facsimile of American Cookery 1796 by Amelia Simmons Unabridged republication of American Cookery, as reprinted by Oxford University Press, New York, 1984 Dover Publications edition.

The American History Cookbook, by Mark H. Zanger, Greenwood Press, Wesport, Connecticut, 2003.

The General Assembly of Pennsylvania, Senate Bill, No. 320 Session 2003, Chocolate Chip Cookie.

The General Assembly of Pennsylvania, Senate Bill, No. 271 Session 1999, Chocolate Chip Cookie.

The General Assembly of Pennsylvania, House Bill, No. 1892 Session 2001, Nazareth Sugar Cookie.

The Good Housewife’s Jewel, Thomas Dawson, with an introduction by Maggie Black, originally publlished 1596, reprinted bySouthover Press, London 1996.

The History of Fortune Cookies, Fortune Cookies Co., Ltd, http://www.legis.state.pa.us/WU01/LI/BI/BT/1999/0/SB0271P0271.HTM, an internet web site.

The Oxford Companion to Food, by Alan Davidson, Oxford University Press: Oxford.

The snake rites for St. Dominick (Cocullo), by Vincenzo Battista, December 2001.

Toll House Cookies, Fascinating facts about the invention of Toll House Cookies by Ruth Wakefield in 1930.


The Girl Scout Cookie Factory

The Girl Scout Cookie factory was constructed in the 1940s and was consistently upgraded over the years until its closure about 5 years ago.

From the earliest beginnings of the organization right up until 1973, under-performing Girl Scouts were sent to forced-labor camps. By around 1917, the most profitable labor program was the production of the new Girl Scout cookies. The highest producing laborers in the cookie camps could easily erase several years off of their sentence as long as they met the quality assurance guidelines for cookie production. The lowest producing Girl Laborers as they were called, however, were not so lucky. At the end of each shift when the numbers were counted, the lowest-producing 5% of the workforce was punished. The punishment was often so severe that many of the laborers, allegedly, chose to jump into the boiling vats instead of facing the harsh penalties. The facility managers, being under extremely tight scrutiny by the organization, didn't have the resources to stop production on account of unexpected additional "ingredients". Eventually they, allegedly, worked it into a new recipe and stopped issuing extraneous punishments altogether, in favor of streamlining the process by simply forcing the lowest 5% into the vats directly. The cookies produced from this modified recipe were known as "Soylent Green Mints" which were supposedly named after the primary ingredient which was "high-energy plankton" found in the ocean. The Soylent Green Mints were far and above their most popular cookie for decades.

In 1973, however, an escaped Girl Laborer (who was presumed dead after going missing during the third shift) turned up at a hospital with serious allegations against the organization. The most notable allegation was that Soylent Green Mints were not actually plankton but were instead a combination of flour, various artificial mint flavorings and human remains. The Girl Scouts naturally denied these allegations. But a disgruntled maintenance worker by the name of Frank Thorn stepped forward with promises of damning evidence. Unfortunately, Mr Thorn's body was found floating in the river days later and his apartment was burned to the ground. The case was brought to court but it was deemed a mistrial because none of the mint cookies were ever made available for testing. The criminal case was dropped and the civil case was settled out of court without the Girl Scouts ever publicly admitting the ingredients of Soylent Green Mints. Bad publicity, however, did force them to change the name of their most popular cookie to "Thin Mints".

Despite the controversy and the years-long legal battle, this facility continued producing cookies around the clock. It wasn't until the dwindling numbers of local Girl Laborers made it increasingly difficult to maintain production levels at this now outdated facility. A new factory was built at a non-disclosed location near a major urban metropolis and is now the world's sole producer of Thin Mints.


Oreos Are Introduced

In 1898, several baking companies merged to form the National Biscuit Company, also called Nabisco. This was the beginning of the corporation that would create the Oreo cookie. In 1902, Nabisco rolled out Barnum's Animal Crackers for the first time, making them famous by selling them in a little box designed like a circus animal cage that featured an attached string so that the box could be hung on Christmas trees.

In 1912, Nabisco had an idea for a new cookie, though it wasn't exactly its own—two chocolate disks with a creme filling in between had been done already by the Sunshine Biscuits company in 1908, which called the cookie Hydrox. While Nabisco has never named Hydrox as its inspiration, the Oreo cookie invented four years after the world was introduced to Hydrox closely resembled the biscuit that preceded it: two decorated chocolate discs with white creme sandwiched between them.

Despite its potentially suspicious origination, the Oreo made a name for itself and quickly surpassed the popularity of its competitor. Nabisco made sure to file for a trademark on the new cookie soon after its creation on March 14, 1912. The request was granted on August 12, 1913.


NUUT! Letter & Number Cakes

We thank you for your continued support. The safety and well-being of our team, customers, and communities remain our top priority.

As state and local governments begin to ease restrictions, we are taking steps to maintain safe and comfortable environments for our customers and employees.

In the meantime, you can still enjoy Great American Cookies, as many of our stores remain open for delivery and carryout.


Tips for Baking with Raisins

Raisins sometimes get a bad rap, but they are healthy, full of iron and vitamins, and delicious! They are especially delicious in these Raisin Filled Cookies. Here are some tips for baking with raisins:

  • For extra plump raisins in cookies, bread, rolls, etc. you can place them in hot water, microwave for a couple of minutes, then soak for about ten minutes. After that, they’re ready to use!
  • Toss raisins in a bit of the recipe flour (not extra flour, which can make your batter heavy) which will help keep them from sinking to the bottom of the pan when baking.
  • If your raisins are stuck together, put them in a colander and rinse with warm water, separating them with your fingers.
  • Other dried fruit like dates, dried cranberries, cherries or prunes can be substituted measure-for-measure for raisins.

Try raisins in these delicious recipes and give those sweet little bites another chance!


The Best Way to Keep Cookies Fresh

Whether you’ve converted your kitchen into a Christmas cookie factory or are just baking a single batch of treats to satisfy a sudden dessert craving, you’ll need to know the best way to store your cookies to preserve their flavor and texture. (Unless you plan on eating all of them straight off of the cookie sheet—no judgment!)

The best way to store cookies depends on the type of cookie and how long you want to store them. Read on for our best tips.

Crisp Cookies

Moisture is the enemy of treats like gingersnaps, shortbread, biscotti, and crunchy-edged chocolate chip and sugar cookies. While you might think an airtight container or plastic storage bag is the way to go, it will actually trap moisture inside, making the cookies soften. Instead, leave it partially unsealed. The cookies should stay fresh for several days.

If you want to enjoy the cookies later on, your best bet is to make and freeze the unbaked dough. Shape the dough into logs, wrap in plastic, place in a freezer bag or airtight container, and freeze. Or flash freeze individual scoops of dough on cookie sheets, then place the frozen balls of dough in a freezer bag and freeze.

Soft Cookies

For puffy and tender treats like snickerdoodles and chocolate chip, peanut butter, or sugar cookies, a little moisture will help them retain their soft texture. If you are planning to eat the cookies within a few days, place them in an airtight container or ziplock bag. You can also place a slice of sandwich bread inside the container, which will absorb excess moisture and help keep the cookies soft.

If you want to enjoy the cookies later on, bake them, then let them cool. Flash freeze them on cookie sheets, then transfer the frozen cookies to air airtight container or freezer bag. To defrost the cookies, place them on a paper towel-lined plate at room temperature.