Nuwe resepte

Terroir versus wynmaak: wat is 'n goeie wynstyl?

Terroir versus wynmaak: wat is 'n goeie wynstyl?


Ons probeer 12 chardonnays om die mees ideale styl te vind

Ons glo dat wyne, behalwe die huisstyl van elke wynmakery, 'n gevoel van plek gee. Hierdie idee, met sy Franse naam, terroir, dui daarop dat 'n wyn op 'n spesifieke manier smaak as gevolg van die sameloop van 'n duidelike omgewingseffek wat 'n wingerd of streek op hul vrugte afdruk.

Chardonnay is 'n berugte deursigtige variëteit, wat wynmakers in staat stel om dit in 'n spesifieke styl te vorm, maar dit laat ook sy terroir heel duidelik deurskyn, of so glo ons. Met soveel streke wat geprys word vir hul chardonnay, en soveel voorbeelde van regoor die wêreld, is dit 'n ideale kandidaat om te gebruik as u 'n bietjie bewyse soek dat terroir bestaan. In die breë sin moet terroir vir 'n streek ten minste inligting verskaf oor die klimaat wat elke streek geniet.

Ek het 'n dosyn voorbeelde van chardonnay gekies om hierdie hipotese te toets, en twee wyne uit elk van die ses streke oopgemaak om te sien of hulle eienskappe deel, en of hierdie eienskappe op 'n beduidende manier verskil van die eienskappe wat die naburige streke toon. Aangesien Kalifornië -chardonnay so gewild is in hierdie land, met baie streke wat hoog geag word, het ek gefokus op die wyne van sommige van die appellasies wat die maklikste met chardonnay gepaardgaan, terwyl ek ook Oregon en Frankryk ingooi ter wille van vergelykings. Wat sê die resultate? Kom ons kyk na die wyne.

Klik hier om meer te wete te kom oor chardonnays uit Sonoma en Frankryk.

- Gregory Dal Piaz, Glad


Hop en Terroir: Waarom die bierwêreld die wyntermyn omhels

Die oorgrote meerderheid van die terroir -gesprek is vir wyn gereserveer. Danksy 'n ontwikkelende drankkultuur vermeerder die karakters in die verhaal egter. Die samestelling van die plek en sy noue verhouding tot geur verdik.

As 'n wyn die pittigheid van die kus of die donker vrugteienskappe van 'n spesifieke grond kan vertoon, kan 'n bier dieselfde doen. Brouers het al so lank gedink, daar was eenvoudig nie veel bewyse nie. Maar dit verander ook.

'N Jaarlange studie het pas tot 'n einde gekom en onthul dat bier in werklikheid terroir vertoon. Onder leiding van die Oregon State University en Coleman Agriculture, die grootste hopkweker van Willamette Valley, het 'n klein span vasgestel dat die plek en groeiende konteks die verskil maak.

Coleman Landbou

Tot dusver was terroir grotendeels 'n romantiese idee in die biergemeenskap. Hierdie studie toon nie net dat hopgeure verander na gelang van waar hulle verbou word nie, dit doen dit ook meetbaar. Met ander woorde, wetenskaplikes het variasie in die fisiese en chemiese samestelling van die hop gedokumenteer. 'N Sensoriese paneel weerspieël die getalle en stem saam dat die aromate, geure, mondgevoel en meer varieer volgens die

Die studie is uitgevoer deur 'n eklektiese rolverdeling. Die span het almal ingesluit, van aroma -hoptelers tot grondwetenskaplikes tot professore. Twee hop is ondersoek: Sterling en Centennial. Die bemanning het na hierdie twee variëteite gekyk oor vier unieke plekke in die Willamette -vallei, oor twee kenmerkende grondsoorte.

Die keuse van die hop het die meeste sin gemaak, gegewe die groot impak daarvan op 'n biergeur. Daar is nie net talle variëteite nie, maar hop bevat allerhande moontlike veranderlikes wat die reuk en smaak van 'n ale betref - alfa -sure, beta -sure, essensiële olies, tannien en meer. Bykomende studies oor ander bestanddele soos mout en korrels sal slegs nuansering en intrige toevoeg tot die algemene gesprek.

Coleman Landbou

Dit is 'n koel openbaring binne die biernerdgemeenskap. Beter nog, dit maak feitlik iets wat baie reeds aanvaar het. As ons nou in ons gunsteling bottelwinkels en taprooms gesels, hoef ons nie meer ons verbeelding te gebruik nie. En as u regtig wil indruk maak op die kroegvlieë, kan u later vanjaar 'n afskrif van die verslag self kry wanneer dit volledig uitgereik is.

"Dit is slegs die begin van 'n opwindende beweging vir die hele bierbedryf, met die potensiaal om bopers, makelaars, brouers en ander bierliefhebbers wêreldwyd te bevoordeel," sê Liz Coleman, die projekhoof van die studie. 'Die werk wat ons hier gedoen het, is 'n goeie voorbeeld van alle bote wat met die gety opstaan. Terwyl ons in die bedryf voortgaan om te leer en navorsing te doen oor die impak van terroir op hop, sal ons Oregon posisioneer as een van die grootste bronne ter wêreld vir hop en brou van hoë gehalte. En dit is goed vir almal wat van bier hou. ”

Coleman Landbou

Coleman en OSU se Kollege vir Landbouwetenskappe beplan reeds verdere navorsing in die komende maande. Dit lyk asof wyn 'n nuwe woonstelmaat in die stad Terroir gekry het.


Dit was nog nooit so maklik om 'n saak vir Terroir in Spanje te maak nie

Leun en fiks op 60, staan ​​Llagostera aan die voet van 'n 60-grade helling van suiwer skil, en kyk na bo, gereed om dit aan te pak. Ek was opgewonde om agter hom aan te sukkel.

Ons was nie rotsklim nie. Ek het wynkelders besoek, en Mas Doix, die gesinslandgoed van Llagostera, is weggesteek in 'n bergvallei in Priorat, die mees verbode wynstreek van Spanje, in die noordoostelike Kataloniese hoek van die land.

Dit is die laaste kurkentrekker wat u ooit sal koop

Voor ons klou die 100-jarige Garnacha- en Carignan-wingerdstokke teen die heuwel vas, en hul wortels strek tot 15 meter deur klowe tot vog. Die skurwe grond, genaamd 'licorella', bevat 2 persent organiese materiaal, en die rots is aan die oppervlak bros.

My voete gly op die plat, gebreekte klippe, ek sukkel tot bo en kyk af na die wingerdstokke wat die ekstra vrugte in Llagostera se Doix -versnit lewer, vier plante per bottel.

In die verte het die Serra de Montsant-reeks soos 'n struik-en-klip-laagkoek gestyg. 'N Stootwind genaamd serè spoel deur die binneland en dra die geure van wilde venkel en tiemie. Bedien hierdie lenteoggend droë hitte. In die somer word dit gedemp deur 'n koeler Mediterreense briesie wat die daaglikse swaai van 45 grade Fahrenheit bring wat die rypwording van die druiwe vertraag, die struktuur en suurheid daarvan verfyn.

Ons gaan sit onder 'n wildevyeboom en Llagostera maak 'n bottel Doix van 2013 oop. Vyf en veertig persent Garnacha en 55 persent Carignan, dit het 'n donker robyn gloed en die broeiende geur van swartbessies op warm rotse. Dit was intens, soos die landskap waar die druiwe verbou is.

Ek was so betower as wat ek gehoop het. Hierdie kragtige uitdrukking van terroir - hierdie gevoel van plek in die glas - was die rede waarom ek gekom het.

Na jare se onderwaardeering, kom die konsep terroir nou sterk na vore in Spanje. Histories is wynkelders in die 69 D.O.'s (denominasies van oorsprong) verbied om inligting oor wingerd op hul etikette op te neem. Die beroemdste streek in die land, Rioja, het wyne nie per terroir geklassifiseer nie, maar deur die tyd wat hulle in eikebome gesit het. Met grootmaatproduksie wat die afgelope paar dekades gehelp het om die Spaanse wynuitvoer te verdriedubbel, was die onvermoë om kwaliteitwyne te onderskei van industriële plonk wat in dieselfde D.O. bied 'n groot bemarkingsprobleem vir Spanje se terroir-gedrewe landgoedere.

In 2003, as 'n soort korrektief, het Spanje 'n nuwe benaming, Vino de Pago, geskep. (Pago beteken wingerd.) Vino de Pago verwys na 'n enkel-landgoedwyn uit 'n wingerd met grond en klimaat so uitsonderlik dat dit sy eie D.O. Tot dusver is slegs 14 wingerde die D.O. Pago status.

In 2016 het meer as 150 Spaanse produsente en ondersteuners van die bedryf 'n manifes onderteken waarin 'n beroep op die regulerende rade van die appèlle van Spanje gedoen word om 'n terroir-gefokusde klassifikasiestelsel op te stel, gebaseer op Franse vlakke: streeks-, dorp- en landgoed.

'Al die wonderlike wyne ter wêreld kom van uitsonderlike wingerde,' lui die dokument. 'Daarom het die mees gewaardeerde wynstreke wette aangeneem om die unieke terreine te verdedig en te beskerm.

Verlede jaar het die Consejo Regulador van Rioja ingestem om wyne van een landgoed te klassifiseer om produsente wat dreig om te ontsnap uit hul beroemde D.O.C. Die Consejo Regulador de Cava het 'n soortgelyke stap gemaak. Albei volg die voorbeeld van Priorat, wat dorps- en landgoedbenamings gebruik het sedert 2009. Terroir-gedrewe verandering kan uiteindelik in Spanje aan die gang wees.

In die tussentyd, wat is 'n wynliefhebber wat nie gejaag oor D.O. politiek te doen? Hoe kan u 'n Spaanse wyn kies met 'n gevoel van plek? En as u in Spanje reis, watter wynkelders moet u besoek om die mistieke gemeenskap met terroir te hê?

Een slim stap is om na die Grandes Pagos de España te gaan. Grandes Pagos de España (GPE), wat in 2000 in Kastilië gestig is en drie jaar later na die res van die land uitgebrei is, is 'n onafhanklike vereniging van landgoedprodusente wat saamgestem het om die unieke terroir van hul enkel-wingerdwyne te beklemtoon. Om toegang te verkry, moet 'n produsent sukses in die mark toon, wingerdinspeksie ondergaan en wyne deur verenigingslede vertikaal proe.

Die GPE het 29 wynkelders in 14 appellasies regoor die vasteland van Spanje. Hulle wissel in grootte en karakter, van klein, deur familie bestuurde bedrywighede soos Cortijo los Aguilares, wat 18 hektaar Tempranillo en ander druiwe op 900 meter bo Andalucía verbou, tot groot landgoedere soos Navarro se 128 hektaar Propiedad Arínzano, in besit van Yuri Shefler van Stolichnaya. By Propiedad Arínzano kan reisigers in 'n opgeknapte 18de-eeuse villa bly en heerlik eet.

Almal is wynkelders van uitnemendheid en historiese belang met die fokus op terroir. Nie elke etiket wat 'n lid maak, is 'n GPE -wyn nie - slegs dié van 'n uitsonderlike wingerd. Die meerderheid van hulle voer na die VSA uit, en soos Mas Doix, wie se Doix -etiket 'n GPE -wyn is, is gaste baie welkom by hul boedels vir toere en proewe.

'Ek glo nie in die benaming nie,' het Antonio Sarrión, eienaar-wynmaker by Bodega Mustiguillo en die huidige president van die GPE, gesê toe hy my deur 'n valleynse vallei van fabriekswingerde gery het waarvan die druiwe grootliks vir grootmaat-wyn uitgevoer word. 'Ek glo nie in die groot koöperasies nie.'

Ons kom van die Requena af na die suide van die vallei, waar Sarrión op 'n helling van 900 meter hoë wit druiwe verbou: Xarello en Chardonnay vir Cava en, vir stilwyne, Viognier, Malvasia en Merseguera.

'N Min bekende inheemse variëteit, Merseguera, word meestal in grootmaat wyne gemeng. In “The Oxford Companion to Wine, ” Vierde uitgawe, noem Janice Robinson dit "flou." Maar organies gegroei en droog geboer op heuwels met 'n aansienlike temperatuurskommeling tussen nag en dag, dan natuurlik gegiste en jaarliks ​​verouderd in ou Franse eikehout- en akasia-vate, lewer Sarrión se Merseguera 'n pittige, perske, mineraalbelaaide mondvol vir sy enkellopende variëteit Finca Calvestra.

Die wingerd in die lente was pragtig, met mosterd en ander dekgewasse wat in die rooikleurige grond blom. Voëls sing uit die inheemse olyfbome van Sarrión en die omliggende bos, met 'n oorvloed wild.

"Ons sit menslike hare en klein radio's van mense wat in die wingerde praat, want die hert hou nie daarvan nie," het Sarrión gesê. 'Hulle eet die Malvasia omdat dit soet is. Wildevark eet ook baie. ”

Ons het begin klim uit die noordelike punt van die vallei in die rigting van Utiel, waar Sarrión se D.O. Die wingerd van Pago Terrerazo is geleë op 'n helling wat omring is deur kalksteen wat die koöperasies nie in die masjien kon oes nie.

'Ek het al die pakkies gekoop waarvan ander nie hou nie,' het Sarrión vir my gesê. 'Hierdie eiendom het goeie en medium en slegte pakkies. Ek werk net met die goeie en medium - 45 of 50 van 87 hektaar. Die res verkoop ek aan ander eiendomme. ”

Hier bou hy die Mustiguillo -wynmakery uit die ruïnes van 'n ou kliphuis en skuur. En dit is hier waar hy die plaaslike rooi druiwe verbou wat die waarde van die landgoed bewys het vir sy eie D.O. Pago: Bobal. Bobal, 'n donker vrug wat rooi mengsels diep kleur gee, kan baie suur wees as dit nie behoorlik behandel word nie. Toe Sarrión dit op sy eie begin bottel, het Robert Parker dit 95 punte toegeken, maar die regulerende raad van Valencia het hom nie toegelaat om dit uit te voer nie.

'Dit was 'n slegte druif', het hulle aangevoer, so ek kon dit nie volgens tipe benoem nie, 'het hy vir my gesê. Om hierdie beperking te vermy, het hy aansoek gedoen om D.O. Pago -status in 2010. "Die enigste manier vir my was om nie tot die benaming in Valencia te behoort nie."

Met die oog op die korrelkwaliteit van die terroir, hou Sarrión sy pakkies apart, en maak 55 tot 62 verskillende Bobals per oesjaar en meng dit dan in sy Mestizaje- en Finca Terrerazo -rooi. Quincha Corral, sy top-etiket en 'n GPE-wyn, kom van twee klein, droë boerderye wat al in 1919 geplant is. Sarrión maak slegs 4 000 bottels daarvan. Die 2009 -oesjaar wat ons geproe het, het 'n diep, dropgeur en 'n pragtige, syagtige mondgevoel.

Soos sy blankes, word die rooies organies gekweek en lank gegiste met inheemse gis. Sarrión het ook eksperimenteer met betongistings, wat hy self meng en giet met sand wat uit die eiendom gegrawe is.

Hy stel ook nuwe dinge aan die GPE bekend. Die organisasie was moontlik meer 'n bemarkingsapparaat in die verlede, maar Sarrión gebruik dit om uitnemendheid op terreur te beklemtoon. Hy het 'n onafhanklike paneel kundiges bymekaargemaak vir proewe twee keer per jaar om die kwaliteit van GPE-wyne te verseker. En hy het 'n tweejaarlikse vergadering gehou waar lede wingerde -advies verruil.

'My idee is om naby die eiendomme te gaan', sê hy, 'en 'n suiwerder verband met die grond te maak.'

Hy moedig ambagsmanprodusente aan om aan te sluit deur ledegeld af te staan ​​vir wynkelders wat minder as 40 000 bottels maak. En hy organiseer 'n wingerdproef van dieselfde Tempranillo -kloon wat op dieselfde wyse in die landgoed gewin is, om die effek van hul verskillende gronde en klimate op die wyn wat daaruit voortkom, te toets. Hy glo dat sy obsessie met terroir besig is om aan te pas, alles ten goede.

'Ek dink mense drink elke dag beter wyn,' het hy vir my gesê. 'Ek sien die nuwe Spanje.' Om ander te help sien wat hy sien, het Sarrión hierdie jaar 'n enotoerisme -inisiatief geloods, wat besoekers se geleenthede bevorder om nader aan die wynbou en terroir van die lidstate te kom.

"Grandes Pagos de España is soos 'n droom," sê die wynmaker Pepe Mendoza. Fotokrediet: Betsy Andrews

Sarrión se vennoot in die ontwikkeling van die GPE is lid van die uitvoerende komitee, Pepe Mendoza, eienaar-wynmaker by Bodegas Enrique Mendoza. Ek het hom ontmoet by sy wynmakery tussen die dorp Villena en twee bergagtige nasionale parke, nie ver van die kus van Alicante nie. Hier, in die hoë kuswoestyn, is die klimaat wat Mendoza 'Mediterreense uiterste' noem.

'Daar is 'n groot daaglikse omvang,' het hy verduidelik. 'Maar die werklike probleem is water. Daar is glad nie reën nie. In 2013 was daar nie 'n druppel water in 11 maande nie. Toe, die 28ste Augustus, het ons ysstorm gehad. Ek het al my wyn verloor. ”

Mendoza het die wisselvalligheid van die terroir ingegee en biodinamies gewerk en selfs 'n deel van die landgoed drooggeboer.

'Die grond is baie sleg. Dit is kalk en sanderige kalksteen, ”het hy vir my gesê. Alhoewel Mendoza die ou wingerdstok Pinot, Cab en Petite Verdot versorg wat deur sy vader geplant is, verg internasionale variëteite baie werk in hierdie omstandighede. 'Maar as u biodinamiese wyn met karakter wil hê, is dit die plek.'

Met die seebries en droogte, is daar min swamdruk. Hy behandel wingerdmotte met feromoon aas en weerhou spinnekoppe met kaneel. En hy bemes met 'n hewige, tuisgemaakte kompos: heuning, seewier, brandnetel, homeopatiese preparate, lamsafval. 'Die idee is om energie en lewe aan die grond te gee,' het hy vir my gesê.

Dit is 'n verbintenis tot die bedrieglik oorvloedige terroir van 'n gebied wat al sewe millenia bewoon word. Ons het in Mendoza se jeep gestapel, en hy het my gery langs die ou Romeinse pad wat deur sy eiendom verby die ruïnes van 'n ou Arabiese puthuis sny. Ons is op pad na 'n verborge klein wingerd waar hy Monastrell verbou. Hurk, kniehoogte bosse, ongeveer 65 jaar oud, dit het soos bonsais gelyk en is yl geplant, net 15 wingerdstokke per hektaar. Elkeen sou slegs ongeveer 'n half pond van die inheemse Spaanse druiwe oplewer wat die Franse Mourvèdre noem.

'As u 'n groot plant het, het hulle alles nodig. Hierdie don ’t. Hulle sal net 100 druiwe gee, maar van ongelooflike kwaliteit, ”het hy gesê. 'Die unieke moontlikheid hier is om u volume te verminder. Natuurlike wyn: Dit is my lewe. Dit is my evolusie. ”

Mendoza sit 'n mandjie op 'n piekniektafel onder 'n boom langs die wingerd, wat vernoem is na die breedte van die vallei waarin dit geplant is: Estrecho, wat "smal" beteken. Die vallei is gevorm deur 'n ou soutrivier wat deur die land na die Middellandse See gevloei het.

"Toe ons hierdie wingerd gekoop het, was dit amper dood," sê Mendoza, wie se pa die grond in die 1980's gekoop het. 'Vir my verminder hierdie plek my spanning en bloeddruk. Ek bly een uur hier en gaan rustiger huis toe. ”

'N Vors sit op 'n tak bo die wingerd se oorkant. Mendoza wys op 'n bedreigde akkedis wat langs die klipperige grond langs ons geskarrel het. 'Ek glo baie in hierdie wingerd,' het hy gesê.

Toe hy 'n bottel uit die mandjie haal en 'n voorsmakie van die GPE -wyn wat uit hierdie erf kom, ook Estrecho, gegooi het, het ek ook daarin geglo. Dit het 15 maande lank in neutrale eikeboom verouder en het 'n baie kruie -smaak gehad - roosmaryn, laventel, dennenaalde - met 'n umami -streep balsamico en truffels. Maar sy uitbundigheid is elegant ingepalm - vernou, net soos die plek self - deur sy tanniese struktuur en die mineraliteit van die wingerd se caliche -grond.

Dit het die karakter van hierdie spesifieke wingerd so uitgedruk dat ek opgemerk het dat dit blykbaar die geval was wat sy vereniging probeer maak: Daar is 'n plek vir terroir in Spaanse wyn.

In reaksie hierop kyk Mendoza uit oor hierdie geliefde stuk klein, wydverspreide inheemse wingerdstokke. 'Grandes Pagos de España is soos 'n droom,' het hy gesê. 'As u 'n bottel by almal koop, het u 'n pragtige prentjie van Spanje.


Terroir versus wynmaak: wat is 'n goeie wynstyl? - Resepte

Met drie wyne, almal gemaak van Nebbiolo -druiwe, toon die Marchesi di Barolo, 'n topprodusent in Piemonte, die belangrikheid van terroir. Die Franse, veral die Bourgondiërs, het lank daarop aangedring dat die idee van terroir - waar die druiwe groei - fundamenteel is vir die karakter van die wyn. Die Franse noem inderdaad baie van hul wyne, en beslis hul beste, op die plek waar die druiwe groei, nie deur die druiwe nie. Geen Pinot Noir vir hulle nie. Dit is Gevrey-Chambertin of Pommard. Die Italianers neem 'n ietwat breër benadering. Sommige van die beste Italiaanse wyne, soos Barolo, word op hul plek genoem. Ander word deur die druiwe genoem, soos Barbera, en sommige word deur albei genoem, soos Langhe Nebbiolo (Nebbiolo -druiwe uit die Langhe, 'n groter gebied van Piemonte rondom Alba, Barolo en Barbaresco) of Barbera d'Alba.

Die enigste manier om terroir werklik te verstaan, is deur die ander sleutelelement by die bepaling van 'n wyn se karakter, naamlik die wynmaak, konstant te hou. Hier is die dilemma. As ek twee wyne proe van druiwe wat gekweek word in twee verskillende wingerde wat deur twee verskillende produsente gemaak word, dan is die verskille die gevolg van die plek (die wingerd) of die produsent? Daarom is die sleutel om terroir te waardeer, die vergelyking van dieselfde produsent se wyne gemaak van druiwe wat op verskillende terreine verbou word. En danksy die Somm Journal -webinar aangebied deur die Italiaanse wynkenner Lars Leicht en met Valentina en Anna Abbona uit die familie wat Marchesi di Barolo besit, kon ons dit doen.

Ons het 'n drietal wyne langs mekaar geproe, almal gemaak deur die Marchesi di Barolo: 'n 2018 Langhe Nebbiolo DOC "Sbirolo", 'n Barolo in 2015, Comune di Barolo en 'n Barolo "Sarmassa in 2015". Die oesjare was nie dieselfde nie, maar beide 2015 en 2018 was soortgelyk in styl, warm en het dus ryp wyne opgelewer. En al is die vatveroudering nie dieselfde onder hierdie drie wyne nie, word die veroudering en wynmaak in die algemeen aangedryf deur die plek waar die druiwe verbou word. Die verskille tussen hierdie drie wyne weerspieël dus in wese die verskille in terroir.

Wyne met die naam Langhe Nebbiolo moet 'n minimum van 85 persent Nebbiolo bevat, alhoewel die meeste heeltemal Nebbiolo is, en kan kom uit wingerde wat as sodanig geklassifiseer is, of uit Barolo (of Barbaresco) wingerde wat gedeklassifiseer is. Produsente kan kies om sommige van hul Barolo na Langhe Nebbiolo te herklassifiseer as die druiwe byvoorbeeld uit 'n minderwaardige deel van die Barolo -wingerd kom of die wyn voldoen aan die produsent se standaarde vir Barolo.

Die helder en lewendige Marchesi di Barolo Langhe Nebbiolo "Sbirolo" van 2018 vertoon ligte blommetjies en delikate vrugte wat kersies lyk. Die tanniene, waarvoor Nebbiolo beroemd is, is duidelik, maar nie hard of samentrekkend nie. In die algemeen is daar 'n aangename soberheid aan die wyn, wat dit 'n uitstekende keuse maak vir huidige verbruik met pasta in vleissous, in teenstelling met 'n losstaande aperitivo.

Die Marchesi di Barolo se "Barolo del Comune di Barolo" is 'n mengsel van hul wingerde in die gemeente Barolo, een van die 11 dorpe wat die DOCG uitmaak en die een waaruit die DOCG sy naam kry. Die 2015 vertoon 'n donkerder profiel, van kleur tot smaak, in vergelyking met hul Langhe Nebbiolo. Alhoewel daar 'n pragtige blomelement is, beweeg die wyn se fokus van kersagtige vrugte na 'n teeragtige minerale aspek. Dit brei uit in die glas en kry lae geur. Dit het 'n groot konsentrasie, maar word nie oordryf nie. 'N Pragtige, subtiele bitterheid in die afwerking versterk sy aantrekkingskrag. Soos verwag van 'n Barolo, is die tanniene duideliker, maar nie opdringerig nie. Dit is verbasend vorentoe en maklik om te proe, maar die balans en struktuur daarvan dui daarop dat meer kompleksiteit in die komende dekade of twee ontwikkel.

Sarmassa, saam met Cannubi, is waarskynlik die twee top wingerde in die dorpie Barolo. Marchesi di Barolo produseer konsekwent 'n wonderlike Sarmassa uit hul aansienlike besittings daar. Die jeugdige 2015, selfs digter en donkerder as hul Barolo del Comune di Barolo, is fantasties. Ten spyte van die meer opvallende tannienstruktuur, is die sjarme daarvan duidelik sigbaar omdat die tanniene sag is, nie hard of opdringerig nie. Hierdie kragstasie is wonderlik geparfumeer en behou balans en elegansie. Sy grootsheid blom verder in 'n ongelooflike lang afwerking. Barolo-liefhebbers moet 'n plek in hul kelder vind vir hierdie wyn.

Die eerbiedwaardige landgoed Marchesi di Barolo het 'n koninklike en heilige geskiedenis. Juliette Colbert, die agterkleindogter (of miskien agter-niggie) van Jean-Baptiste Colbert, minister van finansies van Louis XIV, Frankryk se "Sun King", het die Marquise van Barolo geword toe sy met 'n edelman, Marchese Carlo Tancredi, trou. Falletti di Barolo in 1806 en verhuis na sy landgoed in Barolo. Sy word toegeskryf aan die feit dat sy die styl van die plaaslike wyn verander het van soet en rooi, tot droog en robuust, maar tog elegant, wat vandag die Barolo is, en dat sy dit by die pleknaam geëtiketteer het. Sy was 'n groot advokaat vir armes en verdruktes, en sy is deur die Katolieke Kerk salig gemaak en is deur pous Francis in 2015 getiteld vanweë haar lewe van 'heroïese deug'. Sy sterf in 1864 sonder erfgename en laat die hele boedel oor aan 'n liefdadigheidsorganisasie, Opera Pia Barolo, wat sy gestig het om haar goeie werke voort te sit. Opera Pia Barolo het die landgoed bedryf tot 1929 toe liefdadigheidsorganisasies verplig was om eiendom te verkoop. Voer die Abbona -familie in, wie se wynplase en wingerde oorkant die van die Marchesi di Barolo was. Alhoewel dit nie die beste tyd was om beleggings te maak nie, het hulle, dwaas of profeties, die geleentheid aangegryp om die landgoed te koop. Die Abbona -familie het dus slegs die derde eienaars van hierdie juweel geword en bygedra tot die fiskale gesondheid van Opera Pia Barolo, wat vandag nog in bedryf is.

In 1980 plant Ernesto, die aartsvader van die gesin, Barbera weer, dwaas of profeties, in die Paiagallo -wingerd, een van Barolo se top wingerde vir Nebbiolo, wie se oostelike grens eintlik aan Cannubi grens. Soos Valentina, die dogter van Ernesto, 'n paar jaar gelede vir my gesê het toe ek besoek het, het haar pa die meer waardevolle Nebbiolo -wingerde met Barbera vervang, alhoewel hy besef het dat dit moontlik teen sy ekonomiese belang was. Volgens sy dogter wou Ernesto terugkeer na die tradisie van Piemonte om selfs 'nederige' variëteite in die beste terroir te laat plant. Sy het verduidelik dat hy die algemene beeld dat Barbera slegs in sub-par terroir behoort, wil uitdaag. Sy het voortgegaan dat haar pa op hierdie manier gevoel het dat Barbera kan skyn, met die elegansie en krag van 'n groot terroir en tegelyk meer toeganklik op 'n jong ouderdom.

Dit bring my almal by Marchesi di Barolo se 2017 "Peiragal", hul Barbera d'Alba wat in die Paiagallo -wingerd geplant is. Elegant en elegant, dit is nie u 'tipiese' Barbera nie. Dit word sagter en ryker, ondanks uitstekende suurheid, met baie meer kompleksiteit. Lekkerheid vervang die uitbundigheid van omkoopgeld wat ek met Barbera assosieer en maak dit onmiddellik aangenaam. Dit is nou 'n wonderlike keuse vir 'n pasta met 'n ryk vleissous. Dit skyn regtig.

Die Franse het lank daarop aangedring dat die druif slegs 'n voertuig vir die terroir is. Die grootsheid van hierdie Peiragal ondersteun die teorie.


Wyn 101: Terroir

Hierdie episode van Wine 101 word geborg deur E & ampJ Gallo Winery. By Gallo bestaan ​​ons om genot te bedien in die belangrikste oomblikke. Die kenmerk van ons onderneming was nog altyd 'n onwrikbare verbintenis tot die vervaardiging van wyne en sterk drank. Of dit nou kaalvoet raak en lekker kuier, elke dag laat skitter met La Marca Prosecco, of ons nalatenskap met Louis Martini in Napa voortsit. Ons wil nuwe vriende verwelkom by wyn en deel in die hele lewe se oomblikke. Cheers! En alles van die beste.

Welkom by Seisoen 2 van Wine 101. Keith Beavers, direkteur van VinePair -proeë, begin die seisoen met 'n bespreking oor 'terroir', 'n konsep wat hy selfs moeilik kan definieer. Alhoewel die term na 'n aantal verskillende faktore kan verwys, beteken terroir in wese 'n gevoel van plek.

Beavers werk deur verskillende AVA's - van makro tot mikroklimate - om te verduidelik hoe twee identiese wingerde wat langs mekaar groei, steeds verskillende wyne kan produseer. Hy sê terroir is uiteindelik die proses waardeur grondsamestelling, son en klimaat bymekaarkom om 'n spesifieke wyn te produseer. Hy som dit miskien die beste op deur te sê "dit is 'n manier vir wynmakers om vir jou te sê dat wat hulle doen uniek is in hul omgewing."

Hy verduidelik ook watter wyne die meeste deur terroir beïnvloed word, en as dit sinvol is om op 'n "enkel-wingerd" wyn te spuit. Aan die einde van die dag beklemtoon hy dat 'terroir' 'n deurlopende gesprek is en moedig luisteraars aan om dit met vriende te bespreek - hopelik oor 'n glas wyn.

Luister aanlyn

Of kyk na die gesprek hier

My naam is Keith Beavers, en o, hallo. Hoe gaan dit? Welkom by Seisoen 2 van Wine 101. Laat ons dit doen.

Wat gaan aan, wynliefhebbers? Welkom by Seisoen 2 van VinePair ’ se podcast "Wine 101". My naam is Keith Beavers. Ek is die proe -direkteur van VinePair, maar jy het dit al geweet. Dus, seisoen 2. Dit is as gevolg van julle dat ons 'n seisoen 2 het. En ek moet sê dat ons dit reg sal begin. Ons gaan in die vuil val. Ons gaan in die lug op. Ons sal oral in die wingerd gaan. En ons gaan praat oor terroir. Wat is terroir?

Sjoe. Seisoen 2. Baie dankie ouens. U hou baie van wat ons hier doen, en nou kan ek nog 30 episodes met u gesels oor wyn. Ja! Ek dink dus die beste manier om seisoen 2 te begin, is om regtig lekker te wees met hierdie ding wat terroir genoem word. Laat ons dit net uit die weg ruim, sodat ons dit kan verstaan ​​en kan gaan na 'n paar baie cool dinge. Omdat terroir, die idee, die konsep van terroir ons vorentoe sal help - in die lewe, in wyn en in hierdie seisoen. Maar ek wil nie terroir ontsyfer nie. Ek wil net bespreek. Omdat die ding van terroir terroir is, is 'n bespreking. Daar is geen werklike definisie nie. Daar is geen werklike konkrete definisie vir wat hierdie woord is nie. Daar is eintlik geen Engelse vertaling nie.

Laat ons dus terroir beland. Ek bedoel, net die gedagte aan, OK, ek is op die punt om oor terroir te praat. Ek moet asemhaal. Omdat dit ook die woord is, is dit nie vreemd nie, maar wat vreemd is, is hoe ons bedryf - die wynbedryf - so baie aan hierdie woord geheg het dat ons dit in bemarking gebruik. Die ding is dat ek in my wynbedryf 'n wynkoper was, 'n restaurant gehad het, 'n wynwinkel gehad het. So ek het lank wyn gekoop. En as u wyn koop, en die persoon met u praat oor die wyn wat hulle aan u wil verkoop, gee hulle u die eienskappe en die kenmerke en dit word in hierdie omgewing gemaak. die dinge wat u in u brein moet weet om die besluit te neem, behalwe hoe wonderlik die wyn is of nie. Wat ek baie interessant gevind het, is die organiese beweging - want toe ek my besighede gehad het, was dit reg toe die organiese beweging die land begin tref. Dit het in Kalifornië begin en na die ooskus gewerk, en oh god, dit was oral op 'n stadium, soos in die vroeë 2000's. En ek het wyn gekoop voordat die organiese beweging getref het. En ek het wyn gekoop nadat die organiese beweging getref het. En nadat die organiese beweging getref het, het mense regtig begin dink aan: “ o my God, hoe word hierdie wyn gemaak? Is daar sulfiete? ” Al die dinge. En dit was toe mense wat wyn vir my verkoop, die woord “terroir begin gebruik het. Dit was net elke wyn wat na my toe gekom het, soos: “oh, jy moet verstaan ​​die terroir hier is bla, bla , blah. ”

En wat is interessant - is dit interessant? Ek weet nie, vertel my wat dit is. Maar as ons in die wynbedryf is, hou ons vas aan sekere modewoorde en terme. En soms het hierdie terme en modewoorde nie regtig 'n definisie nie. Een van hulle is terroir, en 'n ander is 'n term genaamd “natuurlike wyn. ” Hulle word 'n gewilde taal in die wynbedryf, en op 'n stadium spuit dit in die hoofstroom. En nou bemark u mense aan verbruikers met 'n woord soos “terroir ” sonder 'n werklike definisie oor wat terroir is. Mense het 'n algemene idee van wat terroir beteken, maar hulle neem net aan: as daar terroir staan, beteken dit dat iets goed is. ” En dit is eintlik waar. Ek bedoel, die woord terroir dui op hierdie idee van suiwerheid, en dit is wat ons in ons produkte wil hê - wyn of andersins deesdae. Reg? Maar as die woord terroir hierdie gevoel van suiwerheid aandui, maar hoe werk dit? Wat is terroir? Wat is dit oor terroir wat aantreklik is vir wynkopers, wynverkopers en uiteindelik die verbruiker? Let’s talk about what it actually means, and then get a sense of it, and also learn not to completely let it rule your life. And then knowing about terroir is just fun. It’s a nice thing to know while you’re drinking wine. So let’s get into it.

And as I’ve been known to do, I want to start with a quote from the Jedi wine master, Jancis Robinson, about terroir. In the “Oxford Wine Companion,” it says, “Terroir is a much discussed term for the total natural environment of a viticultural site.” That’s the definition in one of the foremost primary sources of wine information in the galaxy. Jy weet wat ek bedoel? And you notice the word “discussed” is in there — “much discussed.” Because that’s what terroir really is. It’s a discussion, as I said before. Because the word terroir and gosh, I mean, hey, listeners that speak French, I’m very sorry. But the thing is, it’s a French word. “Terroir,” it’s probably stupid, but the word is not new. It’s a very old word. And as we discussed in Season 1 in the Burgundy episode, it’s a word that was developed around the Middle Ages when the Cistercian monks were running around Europe, documenting their winemaking, documenting all kinds of soils and all the stuff. They were the first to really do it in a very organized, funded way. And in doing so, in Burgundy, we talked about how crazy the soil is in Burgundy. The monks started noticing things that were very bizarre, but also joyful, if you will, in that one row of vines produces a different wine than another row of vines next to it. But those two rows of vines have the same grape, and they freaked out. So this was an ongoing thing in Burgundy, and then eventually moved its way around Europe because of the Cistercian monks.

And the word that they came up with to describe all this was terroir. Now, this is all legend. There’s no documentation about this. But this is sort of what everyone talks about because that’s what terroir is. And it’s a discussion, right? And I feel like it’s a word that was developed to explain something that was almost inexplicable. And it’s a French word. It’s such a French word that it has no translation in any other language. The “Merriam-Webster Dictionary” attempts to define it, saying it’s “the combination of factors, including soil, climate, and sunlight that gives wine grapes their distinctive character.” But that’s about as general as general can get. “A distinctive character?” What’s that?

OK, this is how I see it. Vines grow in vineyards, but they’re not naturally part of the ecosystem of where vineyards are planted. There were never vines in Napa Valley until humans put vines into Napa Valley. So this idea of terroir is this combination of natural factors that affect the way a vine grows. Because you’ll remember all the way back in Sseason 1 from the first episode, what we do is we put vines into certain areas that we know are going to stress the vine out so we can sort of recreate its natural ability to survive and produce the fruit that we need to make wine. So throughout history, humans have figured out a way to plant these vines — these foreign plants — into different areas with the surrounding conditions that benefit the way this vine grows, produces, and then we harvest.

And of course, now with modern science and GPS mapping and soil testing and all this, we can actually find a great place to plant vines based on the vine we want to plant and all this stuff. But back in the day, they didn’t have that kind of science. And actually the word terroir was, like I said, it comes about during the Middle Ages. But the idea of “sense of place” has been around since antiquity. The Roman Empire would stamp their amphorae with specific places that wines are from because they were known to be good from certain areas. So this idea is just nature. It’s been happening for a long time.

But the monks, of course, had all the funding and they had all the time. And they were the ones that really kind of organized this idea and then came up with the word terroir to sort of define what they were experiencing. The natural effects of terroir can be understood in three categories, really. You have a macroclimate, and then within the macroclimate, you have a mesoclimate and within a mesoclimate, you have a microclimate. And these three categories interact with each other in many, many, many different ways in many different parts of the world to create a specific kind of wine.

For example, let’s see if I can do this here. So in California, you have the Central Coast AVA. It is huge. Now that could be considered a macroclimate, because that was demarcated for a reason. There’s a general climactic thing going on in the Central Coast that is advantageous to wine — whether it’s the influence from the ocean or the general daily temperatures. That’s why it’s called the Central Coast AVA. Within the Central Coast AVA, there is a large wine region in itself called Paso Robles. We can call this a mesoclimate. The reason why Paso Robles was demarcated within the Central Coast AVA is because it has something special to offer, even more so from the larger Central Coast in that it has a lot of limestone in the soil. It has very unique fluctuations of wind and sun and all that. And it just creates these big wines that have nice acidity. And just within itself, it’s pretty awesome. Within the Paso Robles AVA are 14 even more focused, sub-appellations or districts that are demarcated because of their special, unique soil and compositions and wind and sun.

That could be considered a microclimate, but this is where it’s crazy. You could even call Paso Robles a macroclimate. You could call one of the districts within Paso Robles a mesoclimate like the Adelaida District. And then you could call a vineyard or group of vineyards within the Adelaida District a microclimate. So you can go further and further and further until you get down to the actual vine itself. That’s originally what the Burgundians were doing. The monks in Burgundy were thinking, “oh my gosh, this one row of Pinot Noir is different from this row of Pinot Noir right next to it. And we harvest it and we produce it the same way.” And the reason why there are 14 unique districts within Paso Robles alone is because of terroir. Winemakers have found out that there are certain areas that get better wind, certain areas that get better sun, certain areas that benefit from certain soil composition, certain elevations. And they know they get a specific style out of these areas, so they want to go ahead and draw a circle around it and go, “this is Adelaida wine.” I mean, you can see the same thing in New York State. You have the Finger Lakes, you have all these lakes. And there are plans currently of trying to develop the appellation system in New York. People are like, “well, I make wine on Cayuga Lake, I make wine on Seneca Lake.” Because it’s different from the other one, they want you to know that. This is all what terroir is. It’s a way for winemakers to express to you that what they’re doing is unique within their area.

But nature is crazy, and it’s always being studied. To this day, the idea of terroir, sense of place, and natural factors affecting a vine are always being studied. But what it comes down to is how much sun is the vine getting? What kind of soil is the vine in? What kind of topography is around this vineyard? And how is the climate of the area affected by those things and vice versa?

And all of these conditions also factor into what’s going on even deeper into the idea of terroir, which some people call “microbial terroir.” And it’s important, because you have this vine that’s not used to this area, and all these conditions can create certain things like, is the temperature in this area conducive to a population of pests that messes with the vine, or not? Are there natural plants growing around that produce too much nitrogen and mess with the vineyard? What kind of potassium in nutrients are in the actual soil to help the vine grow? All of these factors are part of the overall terroir. So it’s kind of an insane, intense idea that started out — again, we’re going back to the monks — started out with this sort of simple idea of, “oh, this is different than this.” Now, we have science to basically understand terroir down to the actual microbes.

And in addition to that, what happens when we irrigate? That’s not natural. But when you irrigate, you are affecting the terroir because you’re actually putting another influence into the natural things. So you see what I’m saying here? Terroir is just all these factors in nature coming together to help this foreign thing grow in soil so that we can enjoy a bottle of wine. And it just so happens that sometimes, in the most microcosmic part of a vineyard, there are these absolute differences from row to row. And sometimes, we understand it and sometimes we don’t. We? I don’t make wine. Sometimes they understand it and sometimes they don’t. So this idea is just mind-boggling, right? Oh my God, terroir. I didn’t realize it was that crazy. And it is!

And the thing is, it’s an Old-World idea because the Old World in Europe is where all of the more focused vineyards were. The appellation system was created in Europe and France, specifically, and other countries took that on within Europe. And that appellation system was built off the idea of sense of place or terroir, those different climatic categories. In the New World, it’s a little bit different. We’ve had, in the United States alone, we have hundreds of AVAs, American Viticultural Areas. And not all of them were created specifically because of terroir. They were created because of just sometimes political reasons. And sometimes like, “hey, we used to do wine here. We can one day do it again.” And for us — more in modern times, actually sort of post-Prohibition, 1960s and beyond — our idea of terroir in America started to emerge when we started bottling single-vineyard wines, which should be considered a microclimate.

But here’s the thing: Nature is fragile and forceful at the same time. The fragile-ness of terroir is a thing, and the idea of a vine or vines being able to express themselves in a certain way, in a certain place, every factor has to be happening all at once. And part of that is how much of a harvest there is. We talked in the Burgundy episode, we talked about how Pinot Noir is known to express its terroir, because that’s where it all began. But in that episode, I talked about the yield of Pinot Noir. I talked about how over a certain yield, like 50 hectoliters per liter, you’re making a Pinot Noir, but you’re losing the subtleties of it. Pinot Noir needs under 50 hectoliters per liter — actually 30 hectoliters per liter — you really see the subtleties of a Pinot Noir.

So the idea of terroir is really for the wines that are made with a specific kind of care. The more large-production wines out there that sometimes you don’t know what the wine grapes are in the wine or if it’s just a mass-produced wine, you’re not always going to get terroir out of that. Usually when you get a wine that’s going to be like $8 and it says Pinot Noir and it’s from California but it could also have Syrah because of the 75 percent rule, you’re not going to get terroir. Terroir comes into play when a winemaker is trying to express to you how special their place in the world is and how special the wine is that comes from there. That’s why when you see a single-vineyard wine, they’re trying to tell you, “look, this vineyard is special because it’s a specific kind of terroir.”

So there you have it, a sort of general roundabout idea of a word that is used a lot that doesn’t have a concrete definition, but has ideas and concepts around it. Terroir. And for you as a consumer, for a wine consumer, terroir is as important as you want it to be. I mean, if you have the cash, and you want to buy two bottles of wine from a specific grand cru in Burgundy that were harvested next to each other in different rows and has a completely different flavor or aroma to it, it’s a really awesome experience. It is an awesome experience. And it’s just as fun to experience different Pinot Noirs from the 18 different AVAs of Sonoma County. That’s fun, too. So now you have a little bit of information about terroir, so you can actually have your own discussion with people, because it’s going to be interesting when you talk to people about terroir. Everybody has their own idea about it. So I hope that this episode helped you get started.

@VinePairKeith is my Insta. Rate and review this podcast wherever you get your podcast from. It really helps get the word out there. And now, for some totally awesome credits.

Wine 101 was produced, recorded, and edited by yours truly, Keith Beavers at the VinePair headquarters in New York City. I want to give a big ol’ shout-out to co-founders Adam Teeter and Josh Malin for creating VinePair. And I mean, big shout-out to Danielle Grinberg, the art director of VinePair, for creating the most awesome logo for this podcast. Also Darby Cici for the theme song. Luister na hierdie. And I want to thank the entire VinePair staff for helping me learn something new every day. See you next week. Sien? Totally awesome credits.

This episode of Wine 101 is sponsored by E&J Gallo Winery. At Gallo, we exist to serve enjoyment in moments that matter. The hallmark of our company has always been an unwavering commitment to making quality wines and spirits. Whether it’s getting Barefoot and having a great time, making every day sparkle with La Marca Prosecco, or continuing our legacy with Louis Martini in Napa. We want to welcome new friends to wine and share in all of life’s moments. Cheers! And all the best.


Regstreekse opdaterings

When it comes to wine, Virginia has had a long tradition of failure. After the colonists settled in Jamestown, the local government decreed in 1619 that every man had to plant vines and ship wine back to mother England. But the vines bore little fruit. Thomas Jefferson planted European grape varietals at Monticello though he tried for years, he never harvested enough to make wine.

More than a century later, in the early 1960s, the Zonin family, which now owns one of the largest private winemaking companies in Italy, set out to bring old-world ways to new-world wine. The family patriarch, Gianni Zonin, spent more than a decade trying to find the right spot to produce an Italian-style wine. In his view, the Napa Valley of California was too established. It was time-consuming to travel to the up-and-coming Willamette Valley in Oregon. And the cold, wet weather in the Finger Lakes region of New York was nothing like the Mediterranean climate needed for many Italian varietals.


Het jy geweet? Climat vs Terroir in Burgundy

Talk to any French wine enthusiast and it won’t be long before the word ‘terroir’ comes up in conversation. If their French is up to it, the word rolls off the tongue, with the double ‘r’ somehow emphasising its significance – and mystique. The word conveys so much meaning and weight that it’s been hijacked by producers around the world to demonstrate – and show off – the unique provenance of their product. Within its original wine context ‘terroir’ refers to all the natural elements – the geography, the geology and the climate – which, together with the wine producers’ skills, create a unique vintage.

But just when you think you have a handle on this and can throw in a knowledgeable reference to ‘terroir’ in your next conversation about French wine, along comes a different word which, it turns out, only applies to the world-famous wines of Burgundy: ‘climat’.

A POTTED HISTORY

A ‘climat’ is a precisely delineated vine plot, with its own microclimate and specific geological conditions shaped by human cultivation over centuries. The Gallo-Romans grew vines here. And in the Renaissance, the Dukes of Burgundy developed an export market for their sought-after wines. There are over 1,000 climats in Burgundy spread over 142 communes. Some of the most famous, such as Clos de Vougeot, a scenic walled vineyard neighbouring the Château of the same name, date back more than 900 years. Others such as Montrachet are less picturesque. It was Stendhal who
expressed surprise that this “little dry and ugly mountain should produce such a great wine”.

In fact, it produces some of the greatest dry white wines in the world, including Bâtard-Montrachet, Chevalier-Montrachet, Criots-Bâtard-Montrachet and Bienvenues-Bâtard-Montrachet. Never judge a monk by his habit, as the Burgundians say.

Walk around the vineyards of Burgundy and it won’t be long before you turn up a shell fossil – a giveaway as to the type of soil that vines like, limestone. But not just limestone: layered within the limestone are deposits of marl, a muddy soil which contains clays and silts. The seemingly endless permutations of these two soil types play a big role in the subtle taste variations that distinguish one wine from another. The vines are always planted on the east/southeast slopes of the hills, their roots reaching deep into the soil and the fruits above catching the right amount of sun. The slopes and free-draining nature of the soil ensure minimal damage during rain or frost.

Add to these factors the savoir-faire of each grower, their respect and passion for the land, their desire to innovate while maintaining family traditions, and you arrive at a wonderfully diverse matrix of wine permutations. And this is what makes Burgundy so special and so infinitely intriguing for wine-lovers the world over. But it’s not just about the prestigious heritage of the top grand cru domaines. A climat can produce a more modest wine. A long winemaking tradition, unique geology and weather conditions can equally apply to lesser-known domaines and ‘village’ wines.

UNESCO GLORY

So essential are climats to the history, heritage and production of Burgundy wine that local winegrowers and political supporters in Beaune and Dijon campaigned to have them recognised by UNESCO. And after several years of dogged lobbying, the Côte de Nuits and Côte de Beaune climats of Burgundy were granted World Heritage Status in July 2015.

What does UNESCO have to do with wine?, you might ask. Well, the world organisation “seeks to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity”. The current UNESCO World Heritage List extends to over 1,000 sites including, most typically, national parks, cities, cathedrals and gardens. To have gained its blessing for a diverse network of vineyard plots is quite an achievement.

But it just goes to show that the good people of Burgundy know the value not just of their treasured wines, but of their precious heritage too.


New Mexico

Wine has been produced here since at least 1629, when García de Zúñiga, a Franciscan friar, and Antonio de Arteaga, a Capuchín monk, planted grapes in Santa Fe. There are currently three AVAs: Middle Rio Grande Valley, Mesilla Valley AVA (which runs into Texas) and Mimbres Valley.

During the late 1800s, New Mexico produced almost 1 million gallons of wine. Those numbers declined after flooding from the Rio Grande destroyed neighboring vineyards.

Since then, the wine scene has had its ups and downs, but experienced a resurgence in the late 1970s when La Viña Winery debuted. It’s now the oldest continuously operating winery in the state, followed by La Chiripada Winery.

Some of the most influential people in New Mexico, however, came to the state from France during the mid-1980s.

Hervé Lescombes arrived from Burgundy and founded St. Clair Winery in 1984. The same year, Gilbert Gruet established Gruet Winery, in north-central New Mexico, near Albuquerque. It produces traditional-method sparkling wines from Champagne varieties.

Today, New Mexico is also home to well-received wineries like Vivác. Under the guidance of Chris, Liliana, Jesse and Michele Padberg, it has produced wines at high-elevation vineyards since 1998.

“Our winemakers were born and raised in northern New Mexico, where they chose to return,” says Michele Padberg. “They have dedicated themselves to researching varietals that can thrive at our arid, 6,000-foot altitude, and have had excellent success with Petit Verdot, Grüner Veltliner and Riesling.”

A little more than a decade after Vivác debuted, Noisy Water Winery opened, also at high elevation. Noisy Water is now planted to 75 acres of Pinot Noir, Chenin Blanc, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon. The winery is located about three hours southeast of Gruet.

Important grapes planted in New Mexico include Syrah, Viognier, Cabernet Sauvignon, Riesling, Zinfandel, Pinot Noir and Chardonnay.

The Grand Valley vineyards in Colorado and Mount Lincoln/Getty


Building a definition

Until recently, a firm definition seemed unnecessary. At its most broad, terroir represents “a sense of place.”

“The notion of terroir has been with us for more than 1,000 years,” says Chris Howell, wine-grower/general manager at Cain Vineyard in Napa Valley. On occasion, Cain consciously allows Brett to ferment in its wines though this doesn’t always happen. “Long before anyone had any idea about labels, brands and marketing, certain wines were identified with where they grew.”

Simple definitions of terroir allow that a vineyard’s soil and climate contribute greatly to a wine’s flavor. Many agree with a catalog of elements listed by Ana Diogo Draper, winemaker at Napa Valley’s Artesa winery: “Soil, climate, sun exposure, slope, row orientation.”

“Being able to identify the major character of your terroir and emphasizing it into your wines is the ultimate objective of a good winegrower,” says Michele Dal Forno, of Dal Forno Romano in the Veneto region of Italy.

But what are the deeper elements of terroir, and how do they affect the composition and the taste of wine? Here are some of the most important considerations.

Soil composition: The chemical and physical makeup of the soil, like minerals, rocks and dirt, gives direction to the flavors that grapes produce.

Soil surface: The color of the soil affects its ability to absorb or reflect the sun’s heat. Surface stones retain the day’s heat into the evening.

Soil drainage: Some vines like extra moisture, while others hate “wet feet.” Generally, winemakers prefer vines be water stressed to produce more concentrated flavors.

Vegetation: Grasses and herbs between rows compete with vines for water and nutrients, but can also improve soil, increase biodiversity and help with pest management.

Microbial activities: Microscopic beings that are unique to certain locations, like yeasts and bacteria, can affect a wine’s taste.

Altitude: Generally, elevated vineyards are cooler, possibly affecting how and when grapes ripen.

Degree of slope: Steeper slopes drain well and may get stronger sunlight.

Aspect: The direction a slope faces affects the amount of sunlight vines planted on it will receive.

Coastal or continental: Vineyards near bodies of water usually experience more moderate temperature swings.

Heat: Vines flourish in moderate climates, and struggle in arctic and tropical zones.

Sunlight and daylight: The more sun a grape gets, the more sugar it produces, which affects the resulting wine’s alcohol levels. Too much can cause sunburned grapes.

Precipitation: Moderate rain/snow are necessary for vine growth, or comparable artificial irrigation.

Wind: Strong, steady winds can slow the maturation of a grape. When vines flower, wind can also cause fewer bunches to develop.

Humidity: Humid climates tend to cause more vine diseases like mildew.

Fog: Fog acts as a cooling agent and promotes botrytis in sweet-wine regions.

Day/Night temperature fluctuations: Depending on location, daily temperature swings can affect grape maturation.

Severe weather: Hail, frost, drought, floods and wildfires are the biggest threats to grape production and vine survival.

When these elements align, they are expressed in what we describe as a wine’s terroir.

Old World winemakers credit their historic terroirs for any distinctive characteristics. But in the past century, New World winegrowers began to produce highly rated wines from soils that have never grown European or Vitis vinifera wine grapes. Can they possess great terroir?


What Is Carbonic Maceration in Wine, and Why Does It Taste So Damn Fun?

Trying to explain carbonic maceration is like trying to explain a song you heard on the radio when you have no idea who sang it or what they were singing about or why you even enjoyed it. The song was just upbeat and felt good. Does that sound kind of like the light red wines you’ve been loving with that fruity, poppy quality you can’t quite put your finger on? Jip. That’s carbonic maceration, the pop music of wine fermentations.

Like any Top 40 hit, carbonic maceration follows a formula. Most wines are made by picking the grapes, stemming those grapes, crushin’ dem grapes, and then putting the juice in steel fermentation tanks before aging the juice in the winemaker’s vessel of choice (oak, concrete, amphora, etc.). But with carbonic maceration, a winemaker skips stemming and crushing and instead puts full bunches of grapes into steel fermentation tanks that are sealed and filled with carbon dioxide, creating an anaerobic atmosphere without any oxygen. Minus the oxygen, fermentation—yeast eating sugar and producing alcohol—begins inside the individual grapes. Eventually the grapes end up crushing themselves under the weight of the alcohol they are producing. The result is an irresistibly juicy fruit-forward wine with bright acidity, low tannins, and a snap-crackle-pop Rice Krispies texture that is meant to taste fresh and be drunk young.

If carbonic maceration rings a bell, then chances are you’ve had a few bottles of Beaujolais. The French region may have popularized the method but confining it to Beaujolais and Gamay would be like saying pop music applies only to the 1950s rock ’n’ roll that started the craze. These days Drake can be just as poppy as Ariana Grande. You can get carbonic Cabernet Francs from the Loire, carbonic Valdiguié from California, and even carbonic white wines such as Trebbiano from Umbria. It can be used in any region with any grape variety.

Wine is constantly evolving though, and the practice of carbonic maceration is no exception. There are also semi-carbonic wines wines that are put through carbonic maceration for only a short period before going through the more traditional fermentation, typically in steel tanks without carbon dioxide. You might also hear the term whole cluster, which means that full clusters of grapes were fermented but not in a sealed tank pumped with CO₂. These wines are exposed to more native yeasts, giving them more complex flavors and a better expression of terroir. I’ve been in cellars where dudes are doing whole cluster in a fiberglass tank covered with only a tarp. Even though carbonic maceration is formulaic, it’s like any other style of winemaking in that a winemaker has tons of options and ways to make that wine unique and their own.


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