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Die beste Margaritas noord van die Mason Dixon

Die beste Margaritas noord van die Mason Dixon


Ek weet, vet stelling, nie waar nie? Dit is nie 'n luukse plek nie, maar of u nou 'n student is of lus is vir Mexikaans, Border Café is die regte plek om te besoek, en hul margarita's is ongeëwenaard deur selfs die beste in New York.

Gaan sit en kry 'n tafel. Niks is erger as 'n swak margarita nie.

Die spyskaart bevat ten minste 10 verskillende konsepte op tequila, maar kyk regtig nie verder as die eerste twee nie. Jy het nie 'n deftige tequila nodig nie. Miskien 'n paar vars aarbeie of spanspek as u iets meer nodig het as net lemmetjiesap. Ek sou sê hulle is die beste in Boston. Beste in New England. En teen ongeveer $ 5,50 per pop, is daar geen rede dat u nie meer as twee moet geniet nie!


17 kosse wat elke Texan mis as hulle buite die staat is

As u gelukkig was om in die groot deelstaat Texas groot te word, weet u meer as goed hoe heerlik kos kan wees. As u egter ook op die ouderdom van 18 besluit het dat u 'ander dele van die land wil sien' of 'u horisonne wil uitbrei', het u vinnig agtergekom dat voedsel in Texas eenvoudig beter is as elders in die land.

Om seker te maak dat u al die basisse van u volgende huisreis dek, het ons die tipiese Texaanse kookkuns in hierdie handige lys saamgevoeg.

Ek voel regtig na Tim Riggins hier #texasforever.

GIF met vergunning van tumblr.com

1. Ontbyt Tacos

Foto met vergunning van Sabrina Scott

Ontbyt -taco's is nie net heerlik nie, maar dit is sonder twyfel een van die beste katerbehandelings. Spek, eier en kase is beslis wonderlik, maar probeer dit in 'n tortilla met 'n bietjie salsa en sê vir my dat dit nie beter is nie. U kan sien hoekom Texans regoor die land deurmekaar sou wees as hulle nie 'n ontbyt -taco kan vind nie.

2. Kolaches

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As u ooit tussen Austin en Dallas ry en nie vir 'n kolache of twee in West, Texas stop nie ... of vier by Czech Stop (was daar, klaar), dan doen u dit verkeerd.

3. Buc-ee’s

Foto met vergunning van imgur.com

Gepraat van ry, geen Texas road trip is voltooi sonder 'n stop vir snacks in hierdie mega -geriefswinkel nie.

#SpoonTip: Buc-ee's het ook die beste badkamers wat u sal vind tydens 'n lang motorrit in Texas.

4. Dr Pepper

Foto met vergunning van foodmanufacturing.com

Hoekom hierdie heerlike Texas -nektar (oorspronklik van Waco) nie in elke koeldrankfontein in die land voorkom nie, sal ek nooit weet nie.

5. State Fair Delicacies

Foto met vergunning van attheindianafair.com

Baie Texans (spesiale uitroepe aan Dallasiete) wil tussen 25 September en 18 Oktober hul gat terugbring na Texas vir die spesiale vakansie, bekend as die Texas State Fair. Daar sal u vind dat alles letterlik diep gebraai kan word, en alles wat diep gebraai is, is altyd beter. Gunstelinge sluit in: Fletcher's corny dogs, trechterkoeke, gebraaide Oreos, gebraaide bier, gebakte queso, gebakte botter en gebraaide PB & ampJ.

6. Blouklok -roomys

Foto met vergunning van eatsleepcuddle.com

Sekerlik, dit kan 'n bietjie te gou wees, maar ek vertrou Bluebell en dit maak ongetwyfeld goeie dinge.

7. Kwaliteit Tex-Mex

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Nee, Chipotle en Moe's tel nie as Mexikaanse kos nie, dus moenie eers vir my anders sê nie. Ons praat van enchiladas, bors tacos, perfekte quesadillas en fajitas. Klassieke van regoor die staat sluit in: Ninfa's, El Tiempo, Escalante's en Javier's.

8. Margs

Foto met vergunning van instagram.com

Margaritas buite Texas is amper die enigste dinge wat nie teleurstel nie, want hallo, tequila. Hulle is egter steeds beslis beter in die Lone Star -toestand. Mambo Taxis (of 'n Mambo Limousine as jy lus is) by Mi Cocina en Taco Diner pak 'n slag.

9. Skitter

Foto met vergunning van wundermanreports.com

Shiner word gebrou in (jy het dit al geraai) in Shiner, TX, en het aangename seisoenale geure, insluitend maar nie beperk tot verjaardagbier en vakansiedag nie.

10. Texas Dip

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Nee, nie die debbal nie. Ons praat oor die beste queso, Bob dip, guac en salsa vir u tortillaskyfie, behoefte aan eetlus.

11. Braai

Foto met vergunning van instagram.com

Texas het van die beste braai in die land, so Texans mis dit beslis as hulle nie tuis is nie. Maar dit is nog moeiliker as u noord van die Mason-Dixon-lyn is. Gunstelinge in die tuisstad sluit in: The Salt Lick, Pecan Lodge en Rudy's.

12. Bom Burger Joints

Foto met vergunning van Allyson Bigenho

Om een ​​of ander rede sweer ek dat burgers in Texas beter is, en daarom mis Texans plekke soos Hoppdoddy en Burger House.

13. Hoender gebraaide biefstuk

Foto met vergunning van cookdiary.net

Biefstuk gebraai soos hoender sê jy? Tel Texans in. En ja, ons sal sous daarmee hê asseblief en dankie.

14. Pekanneuttert

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Pekanneute is oral in Texas, so tuisgemaakte pekanneut kom meer as een keer per jaar by Thanksgiving #blessed voor.

15. Migas

Foto met vergunning van Maggie Fersing

Austiniste weet oral dat Kerbey Lane die beste migas in die spel het. Om nie te praat nie, baie van hul liggings is 24/7, so dit is 'n pluspunt.

16. Oorvloed van Taco Joints

Foto met vergunning van Courtney Perkins

Dit is beslis moeilik om nie 'n miljoen opsies vir taco's te hê as jy daarna smag nie. Torchy's Tacos, Velvet Taco en Tacodeli is van die beste.

17. Whataburger

Foto met vergunning van sacurrent.com

Die lekkerste Texans: die heuningbotter -hoenderbeskuitjie (met liefde bekend as die HBCB) word bedien van 23:00 tot 11:00 in Whata.


Mason Dixon -skemerkelkie

Ongeveer 'n maand gelede het ek en Josh saam met 'n paar vriende na 'n geldinsamelingsgeleentheid gegaan Die terapie plek, 'n wonderlike plek hier in die stad waar kinders met 'n wye verskeidenheid gestremdhede baie vorme van terapie ontvang. Dit was 'n wonderlike geleentheid en almal het pret gehad.

Die aand het vroeg geëindig, goed totdat verskeie van ons besluit het om daarna uit te gaan. Ons vriende het 'n oppas gehad en ons kinders was uit die stad, die ander paartjie het geen kinders nie. Ons was almal vry !! Ons het besluit om na The Speakeasy, 'n kroeg in die Five Points -omgewing van die stad, te gaan. Ek en Josh het daarheen gegaan toe ons uitgaan, hy het net 'n entjie verder gewoon.

Ons het by die kroeg gesit en laat sê dat ons dit baie geniet het. Ons kom duidelik nie meer genoeg uit nie! Ek en Josh hou die kroegmanne fyn dop, 'n goeie voordeel om by die kroeg te sit. Hulle het baie drankies gemaak wat ons nie herken het nie. Hulle was baie gaaf en het al ons vrae beantwoord. Ons was studente wat dit alles in die nag deurweek het.

Dit was hierdie aand wat ons geleer het oor bruinsuiker eenvoudige stroop. Dit was heeltemal nuut vir ons, soos ek gesê het, ons kom nie veel daaruit nie. Josh het ook 'n drankie probeer, en hy het 'n ander kroegman sien maak. Dit blyk dat dit 'n Mason Dixon was. Dit begin met 'n suurlemoen …. Sny 'n dun laag van die skil af, probeer om die put te vermy. Dit word gevryf, met die oliekant van die skil op die glas, aan die binnekant van 'n messelkruik (in wat anders sou jy hierdie drankie bedien ?!). Neem 'n paar dun gesnyde komkommers en vryf dit langs die pot, die olie hou dit aan die kante vas. Dit sorg regtig vir 'n uitstekende aanbieding.

Voeg dan 'n bourbon, vars suurlemoensap en bruinsuiker in 'n skudder. Hoe maklik is dit nie. Skud dit net oor ys, druk in die messelkruik en voeg 'n skeut seltzer by. Bedien met 'n bietjie suurlemoen en geniet. Ek sal erken dat ek nie 'n bourbon -aanhanger is nie; ek is in die minderheid in my gesin, maar hierdie drankie was redelik goed. Josh het dit terdeë geniet. Ek hoop jy geniet dit net so baie soos ons!

Mason Dixon -skemerkelkie
Suurlemoen, sap en skil
Dun skywe komkommer (beits komkommers werk die beste vir hul klein grootte)
4 onse. bourbon
2 oz. bruinsuiker eenvoudige stroop
Seltzer

Sny 'n klein stukkie suurlemoenskil af, vermy die pit. Vryf die skil in twee messelkanne met die olierige kant teen die glas. Vryf dan die komkommerskywe aan die binnekant van die flesse, hulle moet vassit en bly staan. Met die res van die suurlemoen, haal 'n paar repies skil af vir die kinkels.

Sap die suurlemoen in 'n skemerkelkie met ys. Voeg die bourbon en eenvoudige stroop by, skud sterk. Giet in die flesse en bedek met 'n skeut seltzer. Garneer met 'n suurlemoenskyfie.

Vir bruinsuiker plaas eenvoudige stroop gelyke dele water en bruinsuiker in 'n kastrol oor matige hitte. Kook, roer gereeld totdat al die suiker opgelos is. Dit kan maande lank in die yskas gestoor word, alhoewel myne nooit so lank hou nie!

As jy 'n baie sappige suurlemoen het, kan jy 'n bietjie meer eenvoudige stroop byvoeg.


Watter van hierdie Fredericksburg -restaurante wil u die graagste probeer? Laat weet my in die kommentaar afdeling hieronder!

Hierdie webwerf gebruik Akismet om strooipos te verminder. Lees hoe u kommentaardata verwerk word.

Sondag 18 Augustus 2019

Dit is alles net my mening, maar ek is lief vir kos en het al baie plekke probeer, moenie kwaad word as u nie saamstem nie. Sop en taco is wonderlik. Probeer die papusas. Hulle is my gunsteling. Hulle is altyd vriendelik teenoor my man en ek. Benny Vitallis en Brothers is die beste pizza -plekke. Umi het die beste sushi. Mason Dixon het die beste ontbyt en garnale en korrels ooit! As u ongelooflik honger is, gaan na die Beierse sjef. Die plek het baie Duitse kos en bedien groot porsies. Die kroeg op roete 3 naby die Tractor Supply het die beste hamburgers. Die beste broodjies en roomys kom uit The Battlefield Country Store. Mission BBQ het die beste bbq alles, veral hul salm. Ek wens ons het 'n goeie seekosrestaurant met basiese geregte, skil en garnale en krappe. Ons het niks hiervoor nie. Elke keer as ek verlief raak op 'n Chinese restaurant, loop hulle uiteindelik vinnig af, sodat ek nie 'n gunsteling het nie. Paul's Bakery het die beste donuts. Basilico het die beste panini's en nageregte, veral hul nageregte. Texas Roadhouse het die beste steak vir die geld en die ribbetjies is ook baie lekker. Cowboy Jacks het heerlike voorgeregte, kry die gelaaide potte. Die beste kitskos kom van Chick-fil-a, ek sê dit net, want daar is altyd baie mense en die spesiale sous kom van ons plaaslike eienaar van die franchise. Ons het baie wonderlike plekke waarvoor ek mal is en ek weet ek vergeet 'n klomp.

Vrydag 15 Maart 2019

Brothers Pizza is die beste wat ek in die stad gehad het, en ek het Garaffa's (ook baie goed) en Benny's gehad, waarvan die bekendheid meer gaan oor grootte as smaak (omdat dit slegs gemiddeld is). Sop en Taco hang af van wat u bestel. Le Petit is baie goed. Kurk en tafel is baie duur as die sop die beste gereg is. Daar word geen melding gemaak van Pueblo's Tex Mex Grill, waar ek nog nooit ten minste 'n halfdosyn besoeke gehad het nie, of Peter Chang, 'n buitengewone Chinese restaurant (hoewel dit nie uitsluitlik vir Fredericksburg is nie, maar dit is steeds 'n plaaslike restaurant vir NoVA) .


Guy 's Ranch Kitchen

Guy Fieri nooi 'n paar van sy gunsteling sjefs na die boerdery om 'n paar Turkye -geregte te deel wat tot hul persoonlike erfenis spreek. G. Garvin bring 'n geur van Georgië noord van die Mason-Dixon-lyn met 'n sagte gesnyde kort ribbetjie en 'n ooi-gooey-stoofpan-mac en kaas. Eric Greenspan maak sy bubbie se challah vir 'n pittige kalkoenpastilla en verwerk 'n tradisionele Joodse tzimmes met patat. Richard Blais reik diep in sy familie se Engelse geskiedenis vir rokerige bourboncider en 'n heerlike gebraaide varkvleis in melk en mosterd. Uiteindelik bring die beroemde sjef in San Francisco, Traci Des Jardins, die smaak van die baai na die boerdery met gebarste Dungeness-krap en 'n gekarameliseerde appel- en cheddar-streusel wat van nuuts af gemaak is.

Taco Fusion

Guy Fieri daag sy uiters talentvolle sjefvriende uit om 'n spyskaart op te stel wat geïnspireer is deur taco's en wêreldwye kookkuns. Aarti Sequeira maak soet en knapperige appeltaarttaquitos en kombineer die vars geure van Suidoos -Asië en Mexiko met Viëtnamese springrolletacos. G. Garvin meng 'n vrugtige jenewer-skemerkelkie met agave en verhef 'n nacho-gereg met suidelike styl en grasvleis met ribbetjies. Richard Blais maak Grieks-geïnspireerde lamtaco's met saffraan plus 'n soet, knapperige nagereg van churro-taco's. Uiteindelik bied Eric Greenspan geure in die Verre Ooste aan in sy kenmerkende oranje hoenderburrito en Bulgogi in Koreaanse styl, gepaard met taai Amerikaanse kaas in 'n quesadilla.

Gesonde samesmelting

Die sjefvriende van Guy Fieri besoek sy plaas om te kook, en hy daag hulle uit om gesonde geregte te maak in plaas van die epiese, dekadente maaltye wat hulle gewoonlik maak. Eric Greenspan hou die knars, maar sny die olie in 'n gebakte Midde -Oosterse falafel, en hy gebruik die natuurlike soetheid van bessies en steenvrugte om 'n heerlike verkrummel te maak. G. Garvin braai knapperige blomkool met Griekse speserye en benut die voordele vir die gesondheid van ou korrels in 'n quinoa -garnalebak. Aarti Sequeira versterk gebakte hoendervlerkies met eksotiese Afrikaanse piri piri -speserye en sny koolhidrate met Koreaanse maalvleisblaarslaai. Uiteindelik gebruik Richard Blais molekulêre gastronomie om salmstok te herontdek en verhoog die eenvoudige gekookte aartappel met Griekse jogurt en bonito.

Calexico agterklep

As Guy Fieri nie by die stadion kan uitkom vir 'n goeie agterklep nie, doen hy die beste ding en nooi sy sjefvriende uit om buite op sy plaas te kook en te eet. Die sjefs sit 'n Cal-Mex-draai op kos by die agterklep, begin met Eric Greenspan se ontbytburrito's met pittige chorizo ​​van nuuts af. Eric gooi ook die soet en pittige geur van tamarind en chipotle by die vark in sy carnitas torta. Richard Blais kombineer die ryk en ingewikkelde geure van swartmol met die verkoolde soetheid van geroosterde wortel en sit dan 'n Latynse draai op kaasagtige poutine. Carl Ruiz braai papaja vir 'n soet en pittige escabeche en bedien vleis met pikadillavulsel. Laastens maak Antonia Lofaso 'n pittige tostada van seekos, en haar dekadente nagereg kombineer al die beste dele van 'n sundae met ryspoeding.

Burger Bash

Guy Fieri daag sy talentvolle sjefvriende uit om 'n burger te neem buite die basiese patty en broodjie. Antonia Lofaso kombineer sirloin en bors met gebraaide beesstert vir 'n intens vleisige burger en klits lemoensap vir 'n skerp Garibaldi -skemerkelkie. Carl Ruiz bring 'n voorsmakie van die Karibiese Eilande na die boerdery met 'n Frita Cubano, 'n chorizo ​​en beesvleisburger bedek met knapperige mini -patat. Geïnspireer deur die hamburgers van Santa Fe, N.M., maak Aaron May 'n knapperige, maar sappige tortilla-toegedraaide groen chili-burger. Om dit af te was, meng hy 'n peperment -roomys -appeltaartskommel. Laastens skuif Justin Warner burgergrense met 'n kofta-burger bedekte met fetakaas-sous en 'n unieke, maar heerlike kaasburger-eierrolletjie.

Cocktail -uur

In plaas van 'n moordenaar -ete, nooi Guy Fieri sy sjefvriende om vir die skemerkelkie -uur by die boerdery pannekosse, porselein en voorgeregte te maak. Antonia Lofaso berei kegels van sagte rompsteak voor met 'n chimichurri-sous en aartappelfrites, en as nagereg braai sy knapperige mini-churros met suiker. Carl Ruiz maak knapperige krapkrokette en sampioene gevul met soet en pittige plantains en chorizo. Aaron May bedien 'n dekadente mengsel van kaviaar en crème fraiche op 'n Suid-Amerikaanse arepa, 'n eenvoudige, maar heerlike kombinasie van mielies en garnale en sy eie weergawe van 'n muil met sitrus-gemmer kombucha en wodka. Uiteindelik maak Justin Warner kaasagtige, taai Brasiliaanse Pao de Queijo, braai bros eendbors vir crostini en meng 'n ekstra sterk Rye Manhattan.

Old-School Vegas

Guy Fieri herinner aan rokerige steakhuise en stewige rooi sous, en nooi sy sjefvriende om 'n ou-skoolmaaltyd in Las Vegas voor te berei wat geskik is vir die Rat Pack. Marc Murphy gee 'n opdatering van die klassieke kreefthermador en verhef romige spinasie met ryk truffels en gebraaide oesters. Christian Petroni strek mozzarella -wrongel om romerige straciatella -kaas van voor af te maak, en as nagereg bedien hy 'n fluweelagtige tiramisu. Amanda Freitag maak kalfsvleis vir 'n vurk-sagte Milanese en meng 'n bourbon- en sjampanje-skemerkelkie met die naam Classic Seelbach. Laastens verander Aaron May papier-dun skywe aartappel in skerp Mini Pommes Anna en bring Vegas na die boerdery met botteragtige, met spek gevulde Clams Casino.

Soet en pittig

Guy Fieri hou nie van lekkergoed nie, so as sy sjefvriende die boerdery vir Halloween besoek, weet hulle dat hulle hitte met die soet meng. Amanda Freitag begin die maaltyd met 'n rooi warmbloedige oranje margarita, gemaak met pittige kaneelsiroop, en sy rook gebraaide hoendervlerkies bedek met warm sous en granaatmelasse. Marc Murphy omhels die kleure van die vakansie met oranje en swart kaviaarbedekte eiers en kaasagtige risotto wat in 'n akkerpampoentjie bedien word. Christian Petroni wys sy pizza-kundigheid met 'n Tenderoni-pizza wat oor heuning heet, en hy bedien gebraaide broccolini, bedek met soet en suurlemoen.

Wyn en eet

Geïnspireer deur die oorvloed wat in die nabygeleë provinsies Sonoma en Napa geproduseer word, vra Guy Fieri sy sjefvriende om 'n ete te maak met plaaslike wyn as die ster. Alex Guarnaschelli gebruik rooi en wit in haar sampioene gevul met pekanneut en broodkrummels, en sy maak 'n verrassende nagereg van suurlemoenkoek wat propvol sappige druiwe is. Marc Murphy berei 'n komkommer-tamatieslaai met basiliekruidvinaigrette en 'n delikate gevulde kwartel met fyngemaakte aartappels, gekook in lekker knoffelkonfyt. Jonathan Waxman gebruik sy kookkuns om goedkoop rooiwyn in 'n heerlike wildevark -ragu te maak, en hy braai 'n sappige heel eend met kantarelle en 'n Cabernet Sauvignon -sous. Laastens maak Michael Voltaggio die onwaarskynlike kombinasie van wyn en kersie-cola in 'n heerlike Kalimotxo-skemerkelkie, en hy bedien volgemaakte gebakte kammossels in 'n heerlike groen druiwe- en gissous oor blomkool.

Rustieke elegansie

Guy Fieri se talentvolle sjefvriende improviseer 'n paar pragtige geregte wat net as gesofistikeerde funk beskryf kan word. Marc Murphy braai lemoene vir 'n Boulevardier-skemerkelkie en bedien vuurgeroosterde vye oor vanielje-roomys. Alex Guarnaschelli smoor appel en venkel op roosterbrood met taai gevlamde kaas en kook stadig 'n hartige, smelt-in-jou-mond beesvleisbredie. Die Cioppino van Michael Voltaggio is propvol met die geure van pepperoni en seekos, en hy bedien avokado-konfyt op roosterbrood met tert, gefermenteerde braambessie. Uiteindelik slaan Jonathan Waxman moeiteloos 'n geroosterde lam op die been en 'n heerlike warm saffraanslaai.

19de-eeuse vakansiefees

Die sjefvriende van Guy Fieri besoek die plaas om 'n vakansie-ete in die 19de eeu voor te berei, geïnspireer deur gebraaide gans, vye pudding en Charles A Dickens 'A Christmas Carol. Marc Murphy begin dit met 'n stywe pampoen -eiernag en 'n heerlike geroosterde pampoen met salie, ricotta en granaatjie. Hy braai ook 'n hele vis in 'n kors met sout. Alex Guarnaschelli maak 'n kaasagtige aartappelraapgratin en rooster druiwe vir sappige hoender met swartpeper. Michael Voltaggio se pittige worsballe is geïnspireer deur die resep van sy ma, en hy verhef eenvoudige aspersies met 'n ryk mousseline -sous. Uiteindelik berei Jonathan Waxman geregte voor wat enige Scrooge sal laat glimlag: 'n gebakte omhulde Salmon Coulibiac en 'n crepe souffle-nagereg.

Paryse brunch

Sjefs hou miskien nie daarvan om brunch te eet nie, maar hulle eet dit graag, so Guy Fieri vra sy sjefvriende om 'n Paryse brunch -spyskaart voor te berei wat almal saam kan geniet. Marc Murphy braai beet met 'n tipiese Franse bestanddeel-slakke-en berei Shakshuka voor, 'n Frans-Marokkaanse gunsteling. Alex Guarnaschelli bring die bistro na die boerdery met 'n botterige, bacon-gevulde Quiche Lorraine en 'n onderstebo Apple Tarte Tatin. Jonathan Waxman se bietensap -skemerkelkie, 'n Le Poil du Chien, is 'n onbeskaamde kater, en hy berei ook 'n sappige steak voor met romerige sampioen en spinasie -eiers. Laastens maak Michael Voltaggio hartige pampoenpannekoeke en lewer 'n pragtige beesvleis tartaar bedek met 'n karringmelk gebakte ui.


Inhoud

Maryland se handves van 1632 gee Cecil Calvert grond noord van die hele lengte van die Potomacrivier tot op die 40ste parallel. [2] 'n Probleem het ontstaan ​​toe Charles II in 1681 'n handves vir Pennsylvania verleen het. Die toekenning het die suidelike grens van Pennsylvania as identies aan die noordelike grens van Maryland gedefinieer, maar dit anders beskryf, aangesien Charles op 'n onakkurate kaart staatgemaak het. Die bepalings van die toekenning dui duidelik aan dat Charles II en William Penn geglo het dat die 40ste parallel die twaalfmylsirkel rondom New Castle, Delaware, sou sny, terwyl dit eintlik noord val van die oorspronklike grense van die stad Philadelphia, waarvan die plek Penn het reeds gekies vir die hoofstad van sy kolonie. Onderhandelinge het gevolg nadat die probleem in 1681 ontdek is. 'N Kompromie wat Charles II in 1682 voorgestel het, wat die probleem moontlik sou opgelos het, word ondermyn deur Penn die bykomende toelae van die "Three Lower Counties" langs Delaware Bay ontvang, wat later die Delaware geword het Colony, 'n satelliet van Pennsylvania. Maryland beskou hierdie lande as deel van die oorspronklike toelae. [3]

Die konflik het meer 'n probleem geword toe skikking tot binne in die kolonies uitgebrei het. In 1732 onderteken die goewerneur van Maryland, Charles Calvert, 5de Baron Baltimore, 'n voorlopige ooreenkoms met die seuns van William Penn, wat iewers tussenin 'n streep trek en die eis van Calvert aan Delaware verloën. Maar later het Lord Baltimore beweer dat die dokument wat hy onderteken het, nie die bepalings bevat waarop hy ingestem het nie, en weier om die ooreenkoms in werking te stel. Vanaf die middel van die 1730's het geweld ontstaan ​​tussen setlaars wat verskillende lojaliteit aan Maryland en Pennsylvania opgeëis het. Die grenskonflik sou bekend staan ​​as Cresap's War.

Daar is vordering gemaak nadat 'n uitspraak van die Kanselhof die ooreenkoms van 1732 bevestig het, maar die kwessie bly onopgelos totdat Frederick Calvert, 6de Baron Baltimore, opgehou het om die eise aan Maryland te betwis en die vorige ooreenkomste aanvaar het. Die grens van Maryland met Delaware sou gebaseer wees op die Transpeninsular Line en die Twelve-Mile Circle rondom New Castle. Die grens tussen Pennsylvania en Maryland is gedefinieer as die breedtelyn 24 myl suid van die mees suidelike huis in Philadelphia (in die huidige South Street). As deel van die skikking het die Penns en Calverts die Engelse span van Charles Mason en Jeremiah Dixon die opdrag gegee om die nuut gevestigde grense tussen die provinsie Pennsylvania, die provinsie Maryland en Delaware Colony te ondersoek. [3]

In 1779 het Pennsylvania en Virginia ooreengekom "Om die lyn van Mason en Dixon uit te brei, weswaarts, vyf lengtegrade, wat bereken moet word vanaf die rivier Delaware, vir die suidelike grens van Pennsylvania, en dat 'n meridiaan, getrek vanaf die westelike uiteinde daarvan na die noordelike grens van die genoemde staat, is die westelike grens van Pennsylvania vir ewig. " [4]

Nadat Pennsylvania slawerny in 1781 afgeskaf het, het die westelike deel van hierdie lyn en die Ohio -rivier 'n grens geword tussen slawe en vrye state, met Delaware [5] wat slawerny behou het totdat die 13de wysiging in 1865 bekragtig is.

Mason en Dixon se werklike opmetingslyn begin suid van Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, en strek van 'n maatstaf oos tot by die Delaware -rivier en wes tot by die destydse grens met Wes -Virginia.

Die landmeters het ook die grens tussen Delaware en Pennsylvania en die ongeveer noord -suidelike gedeelte van die grens tussen Delaware en Maryland vasgestel. Die grootste deel van die grens tussen Delaware en Pennsylvania is 'n boog, en die grens tussen Delaware en Maryland loop nie werklik noord -suid nie, omdat dit bedoel was om die Delmarva -skiereiland te sny eerder as om 'n meridiaan te volg. [6]

Die grens van Maryland - Pennsylvania is 'n oos -weslyn met 'n geskatte gemiddelde breedtegraad van 39 ° 43'20 ″ N (Datum WGS 84). In werklikheid is die oos-wes Mason-Dixon-lyn nie 'n ware lyn in die meetkundige sin nie, maar is dit eerder 'n reeks baie aangrensende lynsegmente, wat 'n pad volg tussen breedtegraad 39 ° 43′15 ″ N en 39 ° 43′23 ″ N.

Die landmeters het ook die grenslyn 64 myl (64 km) wes van die westelike grens van Maryland uitgebrei tot gebied wat nog steeds in geskil was tussen Pennsylvania en Virginia, hoewel dit in stryd was met hul oorspronklike handves. [3] Die opname van Mason en Dixon is op 9 Oktober 1767 voltooi, ongeveer 50 kilometer oos van die huidige suidwestelike hoek van Pennsylvania. [7]

In 1774 kom kommissarisse van Pennsylvania en Virginia bymekaar om hul grens te onderhandel, wat destyds die suidelike grens van Pennsylvania wes van Maryland en sy hele westelike grens betrek het. Beide kante was dit eens dat Pennsylvania se toekenning van sy westelike grens 'n spoor van die loop van die Delaware -rivier gemaak het, wat vyf grade (ongeveer 265 myl) na die weste verplaas is. En albei kante het gedink dit sou Fort Pitt in Virginia se gebied plaas (eintlik sou dit nie gebeur het nie). Met die oog daarop het die goewerneur van Pennsylvania aangevoer dat, ten spyte van die ooreenkoms met Maryland, die suidelike grens van Pennsylvania wes van Maryland steeds die 39ste parallel was, ongeveer 80 kilometer suid van die Mason - Dixon -lyn. Onderhandelinge het vyf jaar lank voortgegaan, met 'n reeks voorgestelde lyne. Uiteindelik is 'n kompromie bereik: die Mason - Dixon -lyn word wes verleng tot 'n punt vyf grade wes van die Delaware -rivier. Om Pennsylvania te vergoed vir die verlore gebied, sou die westelike grens daarvan noordwaarts loop eerder as om die loop van die Delaware -rivier te kopieer. [3]

Die Mason -Dixon -lyn is gemerk met klippe elke 1,6 km en "kroonstene" elke 5 myl (8,0 km), met behulp van klip wat uit Engeland gestuur is. Die Maryland -kant sê "(M)" en die kant van Delaware en Pennsylvania sê "(P)". [ aanhaling nodig ] Kroonstene sluit die twee wapens in. Terwyl 'n aantal van die oorspronklike klippe ontbreek of begrawe word, is baie nog steeds sigbaar, rus op openbare grond en word beskerm deur ysterhokke. [8]

Mason en Dixon het vroeër opnames bevestig, wat Delaware se suidelike grens van die Atlantiese Oseaan tot by die 'middelste punt' (langs die Transpeninsular Line) omskryf het. Hulle het byna noordwaarts verder gegaan tot by die grens met Pennsylvania. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Later is die lyn plek -plek gemerk deur addisionele maatstawwe en opname -nasieners. Die lyne is deur die eeue verskeie kere herontdek sonder om die werk van Mason en Dixon wesenlik te verander. Die klippe kan 'n paar tot 'n paar honderd voet oos of wes van die punt wees wat Mason en Dixon gedink het: dit is in elk geval die lyn wat van klip tot klip getrek word, die wettige grens. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Die lyn is gestig om 'n grensgeskil tussen die Britse kolonies Maryland en Pennsylvania/Delaware te beëindig. Maryland het die gebied noord van die Potomac -rivier tot op die veertigste parallel gekry. Pennsylvania se toekenning het die suidelike grens van die kolonie gedefinieer as 'n sirkel van 12 myl (19 km) linksom van die Delaware-rivier totdat dit 'die begin van die veertigste graad van die noordelike breedtegraad' bereik het. Van daar af sou die grens die veertigste parallel regs wes volg vir vyf lengtegrade. Maar die veertigste parallel sny in werklikheid nie die sirkel van 12 myl nie, maar lê aansienlik verder noord. Die suidelike grens van Pennsylvania, soos omskryf in sy handves, was dus teenstrydig en onduidelik. Die ernstigste probleem was dat die Maryland -eis Philadelphia, die belangrikste stad in Pennsylvania, in Maryland sou plaas. [3]

Die geskil is vreedsaam opgelos in 1767 [9] toe die grens soos volg vasgestel is:

  • Tussen Pennsylvania en Maryland:
    • Die parallelle (breedtegraadlyn) 24 myl (24 km) suid van die destydse mees suidelike punt in Philadelphia, gemeet op ongeveer 39 ° 43 ′ N en is ooreengekom as die lyn Maryland - Pennsylvania.
    • Die bestaande oos -wes transpeninsulêre lyn van die Atlantiese Oseaan na die Chesapeakebaai, tot by die middelpunt van die Atlantiese Oseaan.
    • 'N Sirkel van 12 myl (19 km) rondom die stad New Castle, Delaware.
    • 'N "raaklyn" wat die middelpunt van die transpeninsulêre lyn met die westekant van die sirkel van 12 myl verbind.
    • 'N' Noordlyn 'langs die meridiaan (lengtegraad) vanaf die raakpunt na die grens tussen Maryland en Pennsylvania.
    • Sou 'n land binne die sirkel van 12 myl wes van die noordelike lyn val, bly dit deel van Delaware. (Dit was inderdaad die geval, en hierdie grens is die 'booglyn'.)

    Die betwiste het 'n kundige Britse span, sterrekundige Charles Mason en landmeter Jeremiah Dixon, betrek om te ondersoek wat die Mason -Dixon -lyn bekend geword het. [10] [11] Dit het die Calverts of Maryland en die Penns of Pennsylvania £ 3,512 9/ - gekos (gelykstaande aan £ 455,944 in 2019) om 393 km (244 myl) met so 'n akkuraatheid te laat opmet. Vir hulle is die geld goed bestee, want in 'n nuwe land was daar geen ander manier om eienaarskap te vestig nie. [12] [13]

    Die Mason -Dixon -lyn bestaan ​​uit vier segmente wat ooreenstem met die bepalings van die nedersetting:

    Die moeilikste taak was om die raaklyn vas te stel, aangesien hulle die akkuraatheid van die middelpunt van die transpeninsulêre lyn en die sirkel van 12 myl moes bevestig, die raakpunt langs die sirkel bepaal, en dan eintlik die grens opspoor en monumenteer. Hulle het toe die noord- en booglyne ondersoek. Hulle het hierdie werk gedoen tussen 1763 en 1767. Dit het eintlik 'n klein stuk grond in twis tussen Delaware en Pennsylvania tot 1921 gelaat. [14] [ beter bron nodig ]

    In April 1765 begin Mason en Dixon met die ondersoek na die meer bekende lyn Maryland - Pennsylvania. Hulle het die opdrag gekry om dit vir 'n afstand van vyf lengtegraad wes van die Delaware -rivier af te voer, om die westelike grens van Pennsylvania vas te stel (sien die inskrywing vir Yohogania County). In Oktober 1767, by Dunkard Creek naby Mount Morris, Pennsylvania, byna 393 km wes van die Delaware, weier hul Iroquois -gidse egter om verder te gaan, nadat hulle die grens van hul land bereik het met die Lenape, met wie hulle was besig met vyandelikhede. As gevolg hiervan is die groep gedwing om op te hou, en op 11 Oktober het hulle hul laaste waarnemings gedoen, 375 km van hul beginpunt af. [15]

    In 1784 het die landmeters David Rittenhouse en Andrew Ellicott en hul bemanning die opname van die Mason – Dixon -lyn na die suidwestelike hoek van Pennsylvania, vyf grade van die Delaware -rivier, voltooi. [nota 1] Ander landmeters het weswaarts na die Ohio -rivier gegaan. Die gedeelte van die lyn tussen die suidwestelike hoek van Pennsylvania en die rivier is die graafskaplyn tussen die provinsies Marshall en Wetzel, Wes -Virginië. [18]

    Die Mason -Dixon -lyn is drie keer herontdek: in 1849, 1900 en in die 1960's. [10] Op 14 November 1963, tydens die tweehonderdjarige bestaan ​​van die Mason - Dixon -lyn, het die Amerikaanse president John F. Kennedy 'n nuut voltooide gedeelte van die Interstate 95 geopen waar dit die grens van Maryland - Delaware oorgesteek het. Dit was een van sy laaste openbare optredes voor sy sluipmoord in Dallas, Texas. The Delaware Turnpike and the Maryland portion of the new road were later designated as the John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway.

    Mason and Dixon could only do the work as accurately as they did due to the work of Nevil Maskelyne, some of whose instruments they used. [19] There was keen interest in their work and much communication between the surveyors, Maskelyne and other members of the British Scientific establishment in the Royal Society in Britain, notably Henry Cavendish. [20] [21] [22] During such survey work, it is normal to survey from point to point along the line and then survey back to the starting point, where if there were no errors the origin and re-surveyed position would coincide. [23] Normally the return errors would be random – i.e. the return survey errors compared to the intermediate points back to the start point would be spatially randomly distributed around the start point. [24] Mason and Dixon found that there were larger than expected systematic errors, i.e. non-random errors, that led the return survey consistently being in one direction away from the starting point. [25] When this information got back to the Royal Society members, Henry Cavendish realised that this may have been due to the gravitational pull of the Allegheny Mountains deflecting the theodolite plumb-bobs and spirit levels. [20] [26] [27] Maskelyne then proposed measuring the gravitational force causing this deflection induced by the pull of a nearby mountain upon a plumb-bob in 1772 and sent Mason (who had returned to Britain) on a site survey through central England and Scotland to find a suitable location during the summer of 1773. [28] [29] [30] Mason selected Schiehallion at which to conduct what became known as the Schiehallion experiment, which was carried out primarily by Maskelyne and determined the density of the Scottish mountain. [19] [29] [30] Several years later Cavendish used a very sensitive torsion balance to carry out the Cavendish experiment and determine the average density of Earth. [27]

    Naam wysig

    It is unlikely that Mason and Dixon ever heard the phrase "Mason–Dixon line". The official report on the survey, issued in 1768, did not even mention their names. [8] While the term was used occasionally in the decades following the survey, it came into popular use when the Missouri Compromise of 1820 named "Mason and Dixon's line" as part of the boundary between slave territory and free territory. [31]

    Symbolism Edit

    In popular usage to people from the northern United States, the Mason–Dixon line symbolizes a cultural boundary between the North and the South (Dixie). However, for many people who identify as Southern, Maryland is not considered a Southern state, [32] leading to confusion over terminology (for more on Maryland's position as southern or northern, see the Region section of the article on Dixie). Originally "Mason and Dixon's Line" referred to the border between Pennsylvania and Maryland. After Pennsylvania abolished slavery, it served as a demarcation line for the legality of slavery. That demarcation did not extend beyond Pennsylvania because Delaware, then a slave state, extended north and east of the boundary. Also lying north and east of the boundary was New Jersey, where slavery was formally abolished in 1846, but former slaves continued to be "apprenticed" to their masters until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865.

    The Missouri Compromise line (Parallel 36°30′ north) had a much clearer geographic connection to slavery in the United States leading up to the Civil War. [33]

    In popular culture Edit

    Popular culture contains a multitude of references to the Mason–Dixon line as a general geographic division, or character names evoking it, although a minority of those specifically relate to the line itself.


    KC's in N.H.: Great barbecue north of the Mason-Dixon Line

    Die toneel: A busy commercial local road just off the interstate in New Hampshire's largest city might not be where you expect to find standout barbecue, but it is here nonetheless. KC's was opened in 1998 by two friends with $4,000 and no restaurant experience after they fell in love with a roadside barbecue meal – in other words, for all the right reasons. It would be easy to pass by except you might notice how crowded the parking lot always is. The restaurant itself is set at the back of the property, with a distinct roadhouse look, and often its catering trailer parked outside. There are a couple of spots by the front door reserved for take-out pickup only, because despite the quiet exterior, this is a popular, large and bustling place. It is just two minutes off the main route from Boston through New Hampshire and Vermont and up to Montreal. I ate here after a friend tipped me off, and since then I have also stopped on my way home from Logan airport and picked up dinner to go.

    Inside are several dining rooms, and a bar with counter seating and New England sports on TV. After checking in at a sort of front desk area that does double duty selling to-go orders, souvenir T-shirts and bottles of sauce, you will be led to a booth or table. These are all covered with brown butcher paper, and adorned with crayons, a roll of paper towels, an assortment of sauces in a repurposed beer bottle six-pack holder, and a metal gallon bucket filled with plastic utensils. Food is served on black styrofoam plates. The menu comes in newspaper form, as "The KC's Daily Ribune," including the history and a note from the owner urging feedback with his e-mail address. There is also a clever dose of culinary philosophy: "The biggest problem with barbecue is that you're hungry 2 or 3 days later."

    KC's is very locally popular with couples, groups and families, and classic rock plays in the background (and on the walls, with photos of celebrity diners like J. Geils, Pat Travers and Rick Derringer). There are strings of Christmas lights along the rafters year-round, guitars, license plates, and metal pig and barbecue signage on the walls. Overall it is more warm and welcoming than the rowdy dive look it projects.

    Rede om te besoek: Pulled pork plate or "sammie," ribs, house sauces, chips and cheese dip

    Die kos: Maybe because the owners didn't know much about barbecue tradition and history and were blissfully naïve, the menu is all over the place regionally and stylistically and has too many choices. The good news is that almost everything is at least good, some of it very good, and there is small but undeniably New England influence that adds well to the mix. There are nearly a dozen substantial starters alone, running the gamut from bacon sriracha deviled eggs to hush puppies, smothered fries and deep-fried pickles. This slate does not include the equally daunting array of chili, stew and salads.

    For main courses every major style of barbecue is represented, North Carolina pulled pork, Texas brisket, Memphis-style ribs, lots of sandwich variations of these plates, and homegrown bizarre specialties like "beef brisket Chinese pie." There's nothing Chinese about it, rather it's a barbecue take on shepherd's pie, and there's almost a whole page of burgers and hot dogs. There are five different sauces, and all dinner entrees are served with a choice of two sides – from a list of fourteen.

    The highlights on the meat side are the pork, both pulled and ribs. The former is excellent, tender but not mushy, more in chunks than finely shredded, very meaty and lightly sauced with a 50-50 mix of the house original and Carolina vinegar. This gives it that authentic Carolina taste and tanginess missing in so much tomato-flavored northern pulled pork. If you opt for the sandwich "sammie" version it is piled high on a better-than-average burger roll and served with pickles and nicely contrasting crunchy cole slaw, light and refreshing.

    The ribs are served either dry or basted with tomato-based sauce. They were perfectly cooked, moist and meaty but not too tender as is often the case. If I had a criticism it would be that they are not quite smoky enough, but they are far better than most barbecue joint ribs. Get them dry so you can experiment more with the five house-made sauces. My favorite was the Carolina Gold, a mustard-based sauce similar to those found in the South Carolina low country. I love this esoteric style, but KC's take is pretty pungent, quite mustardy. In a similar vein, the other Carolina-style sauce, the vinegar-based, is very vinegary and both of these styles are pushed to the limits. Of the "regular" sauces the spicy is better, not too spicy but with more flavor than the blander basic Hickory. Most unique was the homegrown New England version, "Sweet Appletree slather," which was very apple-flavored, almost like liquid applesauce. If you like the classic pairing of applesauce with pork, you will love this. The brisket was the least accomplished of the smoked meats, a bit too dry, but still better than most non-Texas efforts. It works better on the sandwich, slathered with sauce.

    The sides shine here, and are all substantial and in many cases meaty. For instance, the Brunswick Stew is studded with chunks of the pulled pork, as well as lima beans, green beans and pieces of tomato. It's not a side seen much outside the Deep South, and to me, what makes the choices interesting are these regional flavors, dirty rice, collard greens, Southern green beans or local New England baked beans, rather than boring choices like fries or potato chips. The chili, offered as a side, starter or hot dog topping, is very finely ground meat with beans, and a little bit spicy. It's tasty but at its best in the must-try signature appetizer, fresh tortilla chips served with chili and a homemade pimento cheese spread, which as the waitress promised, "was addictive," rather than as a side with meat, where it is just redundant. In any case it really is hard to go wrong here, and the biggest problem is just choosing from so much stuff.

    Great American Bites: Great apple pie in perfect small-town setting

    Pilgrimage-worthy?: No, but excellent barbecue by New England standards.


    Texas Hill Country

    We enjoyed our time in Austin but were definitely excited to get out of the city and spend the weekend in Texas Hill Country. Texas Hill Country is a region located at the crossroads of West, Central, and South Texas. We spent most of our time near Bandera which is located roughly 45 minutes west of San Antonio. This region is known for its unique rocky and rugged landscape. It's full of natural caverns, hills, and windy roads. This area is covered with Ashe Juniper and Texas Live Oak trees. We rented an Airbnb on the top of a tall hill overlooking a valley and, yeah, it was pretty awesome.

    This was not our first trip to the area - My husband and I spent two of our spring breaks in Texas Hill Country while we were in college. We were introduced to the region by my husband's cousin and our lifelong friend Jeff who now resides there. After spending more time in Texas I can see why he's more than happy to skip out on Minnesota winters!

    In addition to it being fantastic to spend time with an old friend it's also wonderful to have a local to show you all the best eating, drinking, and hiking spots. One of my favorite things about Texas is, of course, the food. I've literally never had a bad meal. Not even a mediocre one. We ate BBQ (when in Texas get the brisket - Trust me), Mexican breakfast, and more tacos than you can shake a stick at (did I noem the homemade corn tortillas)? The margaritas in Texas are also on point.

    We were able to spend some time with both sets of Jeff's aunts and uncles - One of whom lives in the area full time and the other who now spends their winters down there. I love listening to folks who have lived in an area for an extended period of time - People who love the land and are happy to call it home. It's interesting to hear about how lots of things have changed and others not so much. This sentiment certainly fits the landscape - It's ancient but also windswept and evolving all the time.

    I've always been drawn to arid climates simply because they are so different than what I am use to. Minnesota is lush and green and water is plentiful. I love the harshness of the desert and am fascinated by the plants that manage to survive there. I became a little obsessed with cacti and spent a lot of time just sort of studying it. Jeff and his husband were kind enough to gift us with some real live cacti so we now have a piece of Texas in our living room!

    Hiking is an essential activity during any vacation. It's such a great way to experience the landscape in any location. You're able to feel the ground beneath your feet, see all of the colors, and breath the air - All of which are likely very different than what you're used to. We spent a Sunday afternoon hiking in the Hill Country State Natural Area outside of Bandera.

    The terrain is rugged and beautiful. A hike to the top of any hill will give you a great view of the surrounding landscape. Ek do recommend wearing hiking boots or some kind of heavy-duty footwear because scorpions and snakes are a reality and I wouldn't want to run into one of those critters wearing nothing but flip-flops! It's also a good idea to fill up a water bottle or two so you're able to stay hydrated while hiking.

    I can only describe our time in Texas as 'Warm'. The weather was warm, the people are warm, the food is full of warming spices, and the colors of the landscape are warm. Southern hospitality is a very real thing and this Northerner loved every minute of it. Texas is a land of contradictions that somehow just works. John Steinbeck summed it up nicely in his book 'Travels With Charley: In Search of America'

    'For all its enormous range of space, climate, and physical appearance, and for all the internal squabbles, contentions, and strivings, Texas has a tight cohesiveness perhaps stronger than any other section of America. Rich, poor, Panhandle, Gulf, city, country, Texas is the obsession, the proper study, and the passionate possession of all Texans.'

    About Christine

    My name is Christine Rooney. I live in rural Minnesota with my husband. I own and operate The Rustic Foodie and work as a freelance photographer and writer. I like my food to be like anything else in life - down to earth and full of flavor.


    Spicy Food Guy

    First in the spirit of disclosure, Spicy Food Guy must admit he is more than impartial to the Skyline Chili Cheese Coney . Besides having consumed thousands of Skyline Cheese Coneys in his lifetime, the geographical center of the Skyline restaurant chain is Cincinnati, Ohio, home of Almost Deaf Father of Spicy Food Guy ( ADFOSFG ) and Loving Mother of Spicy Food Guy ( LMOSFG ). Routinely, Spicy Food Guy will drive home to visit ADFOSG and LMOSFG , who have just prepared a scrumptious from scratch meal for Spicy Food Guy and his hungry spouse and kids, only to have one of the kids, usually Wild Child Stepdaughter of Spicy Food Guy ( WCSOSFG ), announce, "he ( SFG ) ate five cheese coneys after we got off the interstate! In 10 minutes!"

    Alas, it is true.

    And if you have not partaken of what may be the finest chili cheese dog to have graced the planet, here are the the details.

    It is a small hot dog, perhaps four inches long. Add mustard and onion. Pour on a bean-free chili that has finely ground meat, next to zero heat, and a touch of cinnamon, and does Spicy Food Guy dare say it, a misty hint of chocolate? Add a thick layer of finely shredded sharp cheddar cheese, put it all in a steamed bun, and there it is, the best of the best, the Skyline Chili Cheese C oney .

    Another tale needs to be told as it relates to the Skyine Chili Cheese Coney . There is an option, for young picky eaters, to order plain hot dogs on a bun. Skyline calls them wiener buns. That's how they are ordered , " wiener buns". Go back seven years. Spicy food guy is visiting ADFOSG and LMOSFG , with then nine year old Intellectual Eldest Daughter of Spicy Food Guy ( IEDOSFG ) and then four year old Loud Only Son of Spicy Food Guy ( LOSOSFG ) riding in the back of Spicy Food Guy's SUV. Spicy Food Guy pulls into the drive through of the local Skyline, and the Speaker says "May I take your order sir?"

    Spicy Food Guy then replies, ""I will take four wieners. " and the rest of the order is drowned in cacophony of shrieks as piercing laughter peals from LOSOSFG , who screams "DAD SAID WIENER. " five consecutive times as Spicy Food Guy is doubled over, no longer able to speak, and IEDOSFG is belly laughing and snorting at the same time.

    Nothing beats a first class chili dog, except maybe a carful of laughing kids who just embarrassed their Dad with an incident that will be retold at both of their wedding rehearsal dinners sometime in the next twenty years.

    We still laugh about it.


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    The North isn't better than the South: The real history of modern racism and segregation above the Mason-Dixon line

    By Jason Sokol
    Published December 14, 2014 10:30PM (UTC)

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    For Edward Brooke, the North pulsed with promise. Brooke first set foot in New England during World War Two, when his army regiment trained in Massachusetts. He was a native of Washington, D.C., and Washington was a Jim Crow city. When the war ended, Brooke moved to Boston and enrolled in law school. He voted for the first time in his life. And he did much more. Brooke was elected the state’s attorney general in 1962 four years later, he won election to the United States Senate. Brooke achieved all of this in a state that was 97 percent white. What constituted political reality in Massachusetts—an African American man winning one million white votes—was the stuff of hallucinations below the Mason-Dixon line.

    At the same time, an open secret haunted America’s northern states. As the nation gazed at southern whites’ resistance to the civil rights movement—at the Klansmen and demagogues, attack dogs and cattle prods— many recoiled in horror. Northerners told themselves that such scenes emanated from a backward land, a dying region, a place apart. Yet rampant segregation in cities across the country rendered racial inequality a national trait more than a southern aberration. When black migrants streamed north during and after World War Two, James Baldwin reflected, “they do not escape Jim Crow: they merely encounter another, not-less-deadly variety.” They moved not to New York, but to Harlem and Bedford-Stuyvesant not to Chicago, but to the South Side not to Boston, but to Lower Roxbury.

    Here were the two sides to race in the Northeast, embodied in Brooke’s political success and in Baldwin’s cautionary tale. The cities of the Northeast were simultaneously beacons of interracial democracy and strongholds of racial segregation.

    Both stories—seemingly contradictory stories—unfolded side by side, at the same moments, in the same places. Black neighborhoods congealed in the years after World War Two as segregated schools proliferated across the urban Northeast. The numbers of black northerners in poverty and behind bars would continue to grow. And yet these cities and states also incubated movements for racial equality. African Americans scored advances at the polls, in the courtrooms, and in the region’s cultural arenas as well.

    The two stories are rarely told together. The North as a land of liberty holds power in the popular mind. When the idea of “northern history” enters into the public consciousness, it often comes attached to the American Revolution or the Civil War. This was the home of the minutemen, righteous abolitionists, and the noble Union army. Many schools still teach about slavery and segregation as distinctly southern sins. And the North continues to bask in its enlightened glow. To travel from Boston to New York is to take in Harvard and Broadway, high culture and high ideals. Northern states are blue states they have powered American liberalism and provided the first black president with his largest margins of victory. To many Americans, the North remains a higher place.

    To scholars, however, the North as a land of liberty has become a straw man. No reflective historian any longer believes it. Scholars have focused on the North’s dark side. They have shown slavery’s deep roots in New England and New York City. Histories of twentieth-century America reveal the North’s bloody record of racial violence, and its stunningly segregated landscape of affluent white suburbs and destitute brown cities. In recent works of history, the North and the South emerge as rough racial equivalents: the South had Mississippi the North had the Boston busing crisis. If the progressive side of the North enters into these stories, it is depicted as a rhetorical mask that hides the reality of racism.

    The truth is that both stories are real, and they have coexisted—albeit uneasily. This kind of truth can be difficult to assimilate. It does not fit with a portrait of American history as the story of freedom. Neither does it jibe with an understanding of America as the story of oppression. The larger tale weaves together these warring strands—it is a story befitting a nation that boasts an African American president as well as staggering racial and economic inequality.

    The Northeast has been, and remains, the most American of regions. This is not because it is a glittering model of freedom and democracy. It is because the Northeast has long held genuine movements for racial democracy, and for racial segregation, within the same heart. The Northeast best illuminates the conflict that stands at the center of American race relations.

    There is in the North a mystique about the past that continues to influence the present. It is a set of ideas and ideals, a cultural complex that interacts with the stuff of electoral politics, public policy, urban and suburban landscapes, and structures of inequality. During and after World War Two, this regional mystique held its greatest strength in the corridor from Boston to Brooklyn. In this same time period, it would meet its stiffest challenge—a challenge posed by millions of black migrants from the South and by the burgeoning civil rights revolution.

    As many northerners saw it, their region stood not as the embodiment of a painful duel between two American traditions. Instead, they fought nobly on one side of that battle. The Northeast’s unique spirit grew out of a selective interpretation of its past: this story featured the Pilgrims, who sought freedom on the shores of the New World, and the Puritans. John Winthrop, the Puritan leader, famously declared: “We shall be as a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us.” Connecticut’s citizens bound themselves to key democratic principles in the first written constitution. And whereas New England’s settlers led the way toward one vision of American liberty, New Yorkers pioneered a form of intercultural pluralism. In the words of historians Frederick Binder and David Reimers, New York City fashioned a “climate of interethnic harmony” from its founding.

    Boston and New York became de facto capitals of the nation. To Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Boston was the “hub of the universe.” E. B. White, the author and essayist, observed that New York “is to the nation what the white church spire is to the village—the visible symbol of aspiration and faith, the white plume saying that the way is up.” The Northeast, as the site of the Revolutionary War’s beginnings, also became known as the birthplace of American freedom. It was not that chattel slavery bypassed the Northeast, but that it died there decades before the Civil War. When the war broke out, Northeasterners took up arms against the slave South. After the Civil War, newly freed slaves relied upon northerners in Congress—those Radical Republicans who pursued the “unfinished revolution” known as Reconstruction.

    This story of the Northeastern past reigned in the regional imagination. It accented the adventuresome spirit of the Puritans and played down the extent to which they excluded all who believed in different creeds. It scarcely acknowledged settlers’ persecution of Native Americans, the centrality of African slavery in many northern cities, episodes of brutal racial violence like the New York City Draft Riots, or the fact that Jim Crow laws had their origins in Massachusetts. In the region’s collective history, the narrative of freedom had no room in it for these less savory realities.

    Northeasterners of various stripes found uses for the lofty version of regional history. Into the middle of the twentieth century, the mystique helped to frame how northerners would grapple with the stormy present. The mystique informed African Americans’ expectations, raising their hopes for equality and deepening their frustrations when the hopes went unfulfilled. Even when the rhetoric about liberty rang hollow, northern blacks could embarrass white leaders for failing to actualize this version of history. African Americans thus exposed the gap between the unceasing language of freedom and the inequalities that defined northern life.

    This was nothing particularly new in America—the white embrace of freedom with one hand and the tightening of the rope with the other. But it had a different urgency in the decades after World War Two. The civil rights movement exposed the enormity of the chasm that separated America’s ideals from its practices. Martin Luther King Jr. referred to this as a distinctly American pathology, one rooted deeply in history. “Ever since the Declaration of Independence, America has manifested a schizophrenic personality on the question of race,” King wrote. “She has been torn between selves—a self in which she has proudly professed democracy and a self in which she has sadly practiced the antithesis of democracy.” This American schizophrenia has played out most powerfully in the Northeast. No region professed democracy more proudly than this one. And in the Northeast, the battle between racial democracy and its antithesis actually seemed like a fair fight—at least for a time.

    Utter the phrase “the South,” and absorb the images it invites: plantations and porticoes, white necks burned red by the sun, black backs whipped raw. Southern history is filled with extraordinary images of racism. The cast of characters ranges from antebellum slaveholders to hooded Klansmen. “The South” carries an established meaning in the American mind.

    In contrast, Americans’ impressions of the North are far more diffuse. This makes the North both easier and harder to think about, to write about, and to argue about than the South. There is an opening to define “the North,” and to give it a story, yet few previous definitions to set oneself up against.

    Twenty-first-century political maps paint the regions in red and blue, signifying two worlds at war inside one national soul. To many northerners, the South still feels foreign—marked by its politics, culture, and race relations, even its weather and its food. In turn, many southerners hold fast to their regional identity, separating themselves from elitist liberals up north. Comparisons inevitably begin with prominent touchstones: Union against Confederacy, snow versus sun, New England foliage juxtaposed against Mississippi magnolias, Vermont maple syrup and Georgia pecan pie. Southerners, in twangs or drawls, still boast about life’s easier rhythms and slower pace. Northerners, through hard Boston accents or the coarse cadences of Brooklyn, continue to think of their environs as the hub of the universe the South stands as retrograde or inscrutable or both.

    Through the centuries, the North has been defined as all that the South was not. Historian James Cobb asserts, “Not only was the North everywhier the South was not, but in its relative affluence and presumed racial enlightenment, it had long seemed to be everyding the impoverished and backward South was not as well.” Perceptions began to change in the late-1960s. African Americans forced southern whites to bury their Jim Crow signs buildings burned in northern cities the ugly faces of resistance to integration appeared in Chicago and New York and Boston.

    Southern journalists raced to deliver Dixie’s eulogy. They argued that the South’s problems had become similar to others across America inequities now lurked in the texture of society rather than the letter of the law. According to Harry Ashmore, the longtime editor of the Arkansas Gazette, “the race problem is no longer the exclusive or even the primary property of the South.” The most important difference between North and South had vanished.

    Through the 1960s, scholars as well as civil rights leaders questioned the racial meaning of the Mason-Dixon line. In 1961, historian Leon Litwack opened North of Slavery with a trenchant observation: the Mason-Dixon line “is a convenient but often misleading geographical division.” Malcolm X stood before a Harlem audience in 1964 and declared: “America is Mississippi. There’s no such thing as a Mason-Dixon line—it’s America. There’s no such thing as the South—it’s America. . . . And the mistake that you and I make is letting these Noordelik crackers shift the weight to the Southern crackers.” Malcolm’s rhetoric was more fiery, but his message was the same.

    In a 1964 book, historian Howard Zinn argued that the South had only distilled the national essence into its purest form. Dixie was America at its crudest. If the rest of the country had long attempted to conceal or dismiss the racial blights all over its face, then the South, leaping onto the front pages in the 1960s, acted as a mirror that showed America its imperfections. Zinn listed a number of stereotypically southern traits—racism, provincialism, conservatism, violence, and militarism—that were actually basic American ones. “The South . . . has simply taken the national genes and done the most with them. . . . Those very qualities long attributed to the South as special possessions are, in truth, Amerikaans qualities, and the nation reacts emotionally to the South precisely because it subconsciously recognizes itself there.” Zinn titled his book The Southern Mystique.

    In the scholarship on the civil rights movement, the classical portrait held that the regions were marked by their difference. The South had Jim Crow and the North supposedly did not. Clearly, this perspective needed revision. But some of the most recent scholarship threatens to replace this old facile argument with a new one. Scholars now highlight the most blatant examples of northern racism. Yet these extreme cases tell us less about the whole. In addition, such studies underplay the fact that the South had an all-white politics, a racial etiquette of its own, and a unique history of slave societies, secession, and lynching.

    In the South of the 1960s, “a gesture could blow up a town.” So wrote James Baldwin. A southern black man could no more look a white woman in the eye than he could drink from the “whites only” water fountain he could no sooner omit “ma’am” from the end of a sentence than he could represent his state in the U.S. Senate. As Baldwin noted, the most important regional difference was not found in basic racial attitudes. The difference was that “it has never been the North’s necessity to construct an entire way of life on the legend of the Negro’s inferiority.”

    When faced with the stifling atmosphere in the South, just a little room to exhale could mean the world. Lewis Steel was an attorney for the NAACP. A native New Yorker, he worked on school segregation lawsuits in the North. He had no illusions about the racism that festered in northern cities. Steel also traveled to the Deep South more than once. He was in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in 1964, when James Chaney, Michael Schwerner, and Andrew Goodman went missing in Mississippi. He realized that to work for the NAACP in the Deep South was to put one’s life on the line. The North acted as a safety valve. “The instant I got on the plane” back to New York, “I could breathe,” Steel said. “They could never breathe.” In the North, “I was safer. There is no doubt about it. I could sleep in a hotel. I wasn’t worried about somebody breaking into my room and killing me.” This was a distinct advantage that Steel held over his southern brethren.

    In this context, the North’s very existence was important. Jackie Robinson, Ed Brooke, Shirley Chisholm, and the NAACP’s Robert Carter— they were all crucial reminders that a Jim Crow nation still contained some sense of promise.

    African Americans who migrated from the South threw these regional differences into sharp relief. They did not totally escape Jim Crow, but many still felt they had traded up. Robert Williams, who left Georgia for New York, was among the uprooted millions. Of paramount importance, he reflected, was “feeling like a man. You can’t do that in the South, they just won’t let you.” Northern cities answered some of their prayers. As another migrant told a reporter in 1956, “I’d rather be a lamppost in New York than the mayor of a city in Alabama.” A writer for Die New Yorker would later put it this way: Black migrants exchanged the “unnameable horrors” of southern life for the “mundane humiliations” of their new land.

    For novelist Ralph Ellison, the journey to the North exacted a price. “In relation to their Southern background, the cultural history of Negroes in the North reads like the legend of some tragic people out of mythology, a people which aspired to escape from its own unhappy homeland to the apparent peace of a distant mountain.” The escapees “made some fatal error in judgment and fell into a great chasm of maze-like passages that promise ever to lead to the mountain but end ever against a wall.” They swapped the South’s racial hell for the Sisyphean futility of the North. But Ellison’s point was “not that a Negro is worse off in the North than in the South.” Because that wasn’t so. The point was that they had become refugees in the North. For Ellison, the South remained exceptional because of the black cultural treasures that it possessed. The South always beckoned as a homeland for African Americans, one by turns endearing and excruciating.

    African Americans’ ability to achieve equality all too often depended upon white northerners. Whites frequently helped to forge racial breakthroughs in what might be termed “symbolic” realms—on baseball diamonds, in human-relations programs, in state laws and in electoral politics. But economic inequalities and spatial segregation deepened by the day. Still, “symbolic” advances had real value. They helped to form the very fabric of northern society. And on the question of what was possible in the North, they constructed a high ceiling.

    White northerners were a heterogeneous bunch—divided by class, religion, ethnicity, and nationality. In Massachusetts, the rivalry between poor Irish Catholics and well-off Yankee Protestants was as important as the line separating white from black. New York had far more Jews than anywhere else in America, helping to distinguish that city’s culture and politics. In Brooklyn and Boston, one was Irish, Italian, or Jewish as much as “white.”

    Yet important generalizations emerged. There was a surprising amount of agreement among whites when it came to race. Liberal leaders and purveyors of the white backlash alike believed that their region was a bastion of racial tolerance. Louise Day Hicks led the white resistance against school integration in Boston. At the same time, she championed her city’s enlightenment. “The important thing is that I know Ek is not bigoted,” Hicks said. “To me that word means all the dreadful Southern segregationist Jim Crow business that’s always shocked and revolted me.” By the same token, many liberals blanched at the prospects of open housing and school integration. Racial conservatives and progressives shared a vast middle ground. They could agree that they were more advanced than southerners, that African Americans could rise high in the North, and that African Americans ought neither move next door nor enroll their children in majority-white schools.

    Gunnar Myrdal explored this apparent contradiction in his 1944 treatise, An American Dilemma. Myrdal was a Swedish scholar who conducted one of the great studies of American race relations. Among white northerners, he observed, “almost everybody is against discrimination in general, but, at the same time, almost everybody practices discrimination in his own personal affairs.” When racial equality remained a matter of principle, whites were all for it. But they exhibited prejudice when integration threatened to affect their everyday lives. “The ordinary American follows higher ideals and is more of a responsible democrat when he votes as a citizen . . . than when he just lives his own life as an anonymous individual.” Myrdal was surprised that northerners did not try to strip blacks of the franchise. In the realm of politics and elections, white northerners actually lived up to the “American Creed.”

    Over the decades, a glue has held the conflicting sentiments together. Most white northerners agreed that their society ought to be color-blind. This allowed them to cast votes for black leaders. At the same time, even as city officials presided over segregated school systems, these officials claimed they were not segregating—because they fancied themselves as color-blind.

    While such claims to color blindness often proved empty, they presented an opening that African Americans could seize. This was what made white northerners’ racism so different: there were enormous holes in between their professed ideals and their practices, and African Americans could blow those holes wide open. The gap between a white liberal yearning and a segregated reality left room—small but meaningful room—for racial progress.

    Excerpted from "All Eyes Are Upon Us: Race and Politics from Boston to Brooklyn" by Jason Sokol. Published by Basic Books, a member of the Perseus Books Group. Copyright 2014 by Jason Sokol. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. Alle regte voorbehou.


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