Nuwe resepte

Rangers -speler ly aan energiedrankpyn

Rangers -speler ly aan energiedrankpyn


Visieprobleme van te veel sportdrankies dwing Josh Hamilton om die veld die week te verlaat.

Josh Hamilton, 'n buiteveldspeler van die Texas Rangers, is gediagnoseer met wat sommige een van die vreemdste sportbeserings van alle tye noem: visieprobleme as gevolg van oorverbruik van energiedrankies. Hamilton, wat die wedstryd teen die Engelse op Dinsdag, 18 September verlaat het, het reeds verlede jaar gekla oor droë oë en verswakte oogbeweging. Toe sy spel die afgelope week ernstig geraak word, verlaat hy sy span op pad en keer terug na Texas vir 'n diagnose: 'n toestand wat okulêre keratitis genoem word.

Oogkeratitis, wat veroorsaak dat die korneas droog word, word veroorsaak deur die oormatige inname van kafeïen in koffie en sportdrankies, wat Hamilton gereeld gereeld drink. Die toestand, ook bekend as 'snelweghypnose', is 'n diagnose wat gewoonlik gereserveer word vir langtermyn-vragmotorbestuurders wat op kafeïen staatmaak om hulle op die hoogte te hou. Behandelings sluit in verminderde kafeïeninname en die gebruik van oogdruppels.

Gisteraand het Hamilton teruggekeer na die veld om teen Atletiek te staan ​​te kom. Sy nuwe drankie van keuse? Water.


Uni -student vertrek na intensiewe sorg na vier blikkies energiedrankie per dag

Skakel gekopieer

Mei: Ons kyk na 'n verbod op energiedrankies vir jonger as 16 jaar

As u inteken, gebruik ons ​​die inligting wat u verskaf om hierdie nuusbriewe aan u te stuur. Soms bevat dit aanbevelings vir ander verwante nuusbriewe of dienste wat ons aanbied. Ons privaatheidskennisgewing verduidelik meer oor hoe ons u data en u regte gebruik. U kan te eniger tyd u inteken.

Die 21-jarige man het byna twee maande in die hospitaal deurgebring omdat bekommerde medici dit oorweeg het om 'n hartoorplanting te doen. Hy het maande lank die gevolge gehad om twee liter energiedrankie elke dag te laat daal, lui 'n saakverslag in die British Medical Journal.

Verwante artikels

Die man, wat sy beproewing as 'traumatiserend' beskryf het, het mediese hulp gesoek nadat hy ongeveer vier maande lank asemnood en gewigsverlies gely het.

Hy het selfs hartkloppings ervaar, berig Manchester Evening News.

Bloedtoetse, skanderings en EKG-lesings het aan die lig gebring dat die student hart- en nierversaking gehad het en dat die nierversaking verband hou met 'n jare lange en voorheen ongediagnoseerde toestand.

Dokters het gesê dat 'kardiotoksisiteit wat deur 'n energiedrank veroorsaak word' die grootste oorsaak van sy ernstige hartversaking is, en elke blikkie energiedrankie wat die man verbruik het, bevat ongeveer 160 mg kafeïen.

Die skrywers van die verslag het opgemerk dat hy in die drie maande voor sy hospitaalopname weens sy lusteloosheid en gevoelens van swak gesondheid nie kon voortgaan met sy universiteitstudie nie.

Supermarkte verkoop 'n verskeidenheid energiedrankies (Image: PA)

In die verslag het die skrywers van Guy & rsquos en St Thomas & rsquo NHS Foundation Trust geskryf: "Ons rapporteer 'n geval van ernstige biventrikulêre hartversaking wat moontlik verband hou met oormatige verbruik van energiedrankies by 'n 21-jarige man."

Die man het geen mediese geskiedenis gehad nie, behalwe oormatige inname van energiedrankies, het hulle gesê en bygevoeg dat hul gevolgtrekking 'bydra tot die toenemende kommer in die literatuur oor die moontlike kardiotoksiese effekte van energiedrankies'.

Volgens die verslag blyk dit dat die hartfunksie van die man weer normaal is met 'n swak gestremde funksie "nege maande later.

Die pasiënt wat herstel het, het sy eie gedagtes by die artikel gevoeg en beskryf sy tyd in die waakeenheid as 'uiters traumatiserend', en vra dat daar meer waarskuwingsetikette op die drankies is.

Gewild

Die student het geskryf: 'Toe ek tot vier energiedrankies per dag drink, ly ek aan bewing en hartkloppings, wat my vermoë om op die daaglikse take en my studies aan die universiteit te konsentreer, belemmer het.

Ek het ook gely aan erge migraine-hoofpyne wat dikwels sou voorkom tydens die periodes waarin ek nie energiedrank gedrink het nie, dit het ook my vermoë beperk om daaglikse take uit te voer en selfs rustige aktiwiteite, soos om na die park te gaan of om te gaan stap.

Ek dink dat daar meer bewustheid behoort te wees oor energiedrankies en die effek van die inhoud daarvan.

Ek meen dat hulle baie verslawend is en te veel toeganklik is vir jong kinders. Ek dink dat waarskuwingsetikette, soortgelyk aan rook, gemaak moet word om die moontlike gevare van die bestanddele in energiedrank te illustreer. & Rdquo

Dit kom nadat 'n aparte studie, gepubliseer in die tydskrif Plos One, die inname van energiedrank onder tieners beklemtoon het.

Akademici aan die Universiteit van Cardiff het die antwoorde van 'n gesondheidsopname onder meer as 176 000 sekondêre skoolkinders in Wallis van 11 tot 16 jaar ontleed.

Die gegewens uit antwoorde tussen 2013 en 2017 toon dat ses persent van die leerlinge gesê het dat hulle energiedrankies op 'n daaglikse basis gedrink het, en 'n neiging wat nie mettertyd verander het nie.


Wat by Pease River gebeur het, was nie 'n geveg nie. Dit was 'n slagting.

Hoe die persoonlike mitologie van 'n Texas Ranger as populêre geskiedenis aanvaar is.

Vroeë verslae oor die Slag van Pease River het soos Hollywood -filmbehandelings uit die vyftigerjare gelees. 'N Asemrowende jong held, Sul Ross, het 'n klein leër van Texas Rangers, Amerikaanse kavalerietroepe en militêre vrywilligers gelei om te veg teen 'n veel groter groep Comanche -krygers onder leiding van die legendariese hoof Peta Nocona. Dit was 160 jaar gelede, op 19 Desember 1860 - 'n ysige, woelige dag - en die Rangers -koalisie het die verrassing aan sy kant. "Die aanval was so skielik dat 'n aansienlike aantal [van Comanche] gedood is voordat hulle vir verdediging kon voorberei," het Ross jare later gesê in 'n verklaring wat aan historikus James T. DeShields verskaf is.

Volgens vertellings wat destyds gewild was, nadat hulle die krygers verslaan het, het Tom en Killiheir, Ross en 'n ander veldwagter, Nocona, 'n meisie en 'n vrou agtervolg terwyl hulle te perd gevlug het. Ross het die meisie doodgemaak en Nocona beseer, en toe beveel sy Mexikaanse bediende om hom met 'n haelgeweer te stuur. Killiheir het intussen die ander vrou, wie se naam Naduah was, en haar jong dogter gevange geneem.

Naduah het later aan die Amerikaners gesê dat sy as Cynthia Ann Parker gebore is. Vier-en-twintig jaar tevore, as kind, is Parker ontvoer tydens 'n bloedige aanval op haar familie se kompleks in Limestone County, dertig kilometer oos van Waco: sy was die bekendste wit gevangene aan die grens van Texas. Maar teen 1860, toe haar middel dertigs, het sy 'n Comanche geword. Sy was getroud met Nocona en was die moeder van drie kinders, waaronder Quanah Parker, wat later 'n noemenswaardige Comanche -leier en reservaathoof geword het.

Die aanval, en veral die Rangers se gevangenskap van die vrou wat Cynthia Ann Parker was, was groot nuus in Texas. Die geleentheid het Ross, net 22 jaar oud, beroemd gemaak. 'So dui daarop dat 'n oorwinning nog nooit behaal is oor die hewige en oorlogsagtige komanches nie,' het DeShields in sy boek uit 1886 geskryf Cynthia Ann Parker: The Story of Her Capture. 'Die groot Comanche -konfederasie was vir ewig verbreek.'

Op grond van sy Pease River-uitbuiting, dien Ross as 'n Konfederale generaal, 'n senator in Texas, 'n twee-termyn goewerneur en die president van die huidige Texas A & ampM University, die posisie wat hy beklee toe hy in 1898 sterf (Sul Ross State University is ook na hom vernoem). Ross is opgeneem in die Texas Ranger Hall of Fame vanweë sy "vaardigheid en moed." Maar soos die gewilde Pease River-verhaal weer ondersoek is in die lig van lang-geïgnoreerde verslae en ander bewyse, so ook Ross se heldhaftigheid.

Op 'n sonnige oggend die afgelope herfs het ek die Wichita-waterval verlaat en na die noordweste gereis na die samevloeiing van Mule Creek en die Pease-rivier, in Foard County, om Ron Parker, die agterkleinseun van Quanah Parker en die agter-agterkleinseun van Naduah en Peta Nocona, te ontmoet .

Ek wou eerstehands die plek van hierdie Texas -legende sien, maar toe ek daar aankom, lyk dit nie so monumentaal nie. Die Pease was nie anders as die riviere waar ek grootgeword het op die vlaktes tweehonderd myl na die noorde nie. Die grond het gewissel van rooi klei tot sand, en die spore van coyote, wilde varke en beeste het die oewers van die rivier langs die stadig vloeiende soutwater gemerk. In die omgewing het ruigtes van mesquiet en indringende soutseder Mule Creek, 'n stroom wat met lente gevoed is, omhels.

Nuutste uit die geskiedenis van Texas

Die volgende slag van die Alamo!

Die Texas Rangers het Pancho Villa probeer (en misluk). Die konflik vorm nog steeds die grens tussen Texas en Mexiko.

Juanita Craft het gehelp om die Texas State Fair te integreer - en die volgende generasie burgerregte -aktiviste geïnspireer

Selfs tydens 'n begrafnis kon LBJ en Lady Bird nie vrede met die Kennedys maak nie

Hoe Polly Abarca probeer het om geboortebeperking na Suid -Texas te bring

Hoe Manny Guerra die Tejano -musiekscene gevorm het

Ek en Parker het die beespaadjies naby die spruit en rivier gevolg. Ons stop net een keer toe ons ongeveer twintig wilde kalkoene uit die kwas spoel. Terwyl ons verder stap, deel Parker die weergawe van die 'stryd' wat hy deur die Comanche geleer het.

'Pease River was 'n bloedbad onder leiding van 'n veldwagter,' het Parker aan my gesê. Sy oupagrootjie Peta Nocona, het hy gesê, was nie naby die aksie nie. “Destyds was Nocona saam met sy tienerseuns Quanah en Pecos en ander krygers.” Nocona is etlike jare later naby die Antelope Hills in Oklahoma oorlede, het Parker gesê. 'Hy is dood aan 'n infeksie.'

Parker, 'n veearts in Vietnam, is ook direkteur van die Quanah Parker Society, met sy hoofkwartier in die nabygeleë stad Hardeman County Quanah, vernoem na sy oupagrootjie. Sy weergawe van gebeure weerspreek definitief Ross se verhaal en verslae in geskiedenisboeke. (Dieselfde weergawe wat Ross verskaf het DeShields verskyn ook in John Wesley Wilbarger Indiese depressies in Texas, gepubliseer in 1889, wat die Texas State Library and Archives Commission as 'n waardevolle kroniek van die dekades lange stryd om beheer oor Texas beskou ', alhoewel die boek' die Indiane hard veroordeel en nie probeer om hul standpunt in ag te neem nie '. )

Hoe meer materiaal ek bymekaargemaak het oor die gebeure by Pease River, hoe meer geloofwaardig was die weergawe van Parker. In 'n onderhoud in 1928 beskryf een van die Rangers wat deelgeneem het, Hiram B. Rogers, ook 'n bloedbad: "Ek was by die Pease -riviergeveg, maar ek is nie baie trots daarop nie. Dit was glad nie 'n geveg nie, maar slegs 'n moord op [vroue]. " Ek het gewonder hoe 'n bloedbad in 'n groot Ranger -oorwinning opgeblaas is. Ek sou gou verneem dat Ross self grootliks verantwoordelik was.

Illustrasie deur Christopher DeLorenzo

Twee keer ontvoer

Naduah sterf in 1871, elf jaar nadat hy herower is. 'Die dure Parker -mense aan wie sy herstel is, was vir haar heeltemal vreemd', skryf J. Frank Dobie in 1926. 'Sy behoort aan die Comanches, aan haar kinders en aan die nomadiese lewe op die vlaktes. Sy is dood aan hartseer.

Gebore in 1838, Lawrence Sullivan “Sul” Ross het meestal grootgeword in Waco, wat destyds aan die grens van Texas was. In 1858 lei Ross 'n inheemse Amerikaanse hulpverlener, bestaande uit lede van nasies wat vriendelik was met Europese Amerikaners en vyandig was teen die Comanche, wat Amerikaanse kavallerietroepe ondersteun het wat die Comanche geveg het. Ross het ernstige pyl- en koeëlwonde opgedoen in 'n geveg naby 'n dorpie van die Wichita -mense. Hy het berig dat die Comanche wat hom geskiet het, Mohee genoem word - 'n naam wat Ross later in 'n rekening van Pease River sou gebruik.

Ross het 'n universiteitsgraad in Alabama voltooi terwyl hy van sy beserings herstel het. Terug in Texas vroeg in 1860, het hy hom betyds by die Rangers aangesluit om 'n groep uit Waco aan te voer in 'n berugte onbekwame veldtog, onder leiding van Middleton Tate Johnson, om die Comanche te beveg. Slegs toegerus en 'van die eerste af wanbestuur', volgens die woorde van historikus Walter Prescott Webb, kon die ekspedisie nie die krygers verslaan nie. Baie van die Rangers het baie gedrink. Johnson het selfs 'n rukkie sy bevel verlaat om in Galveston te trou.

Die Johnson -veldtog het 'n spoor op Ross se rekord gelaat - een wat hy moontlik angstig sou wou verwyder. Later, in 1860, het hy sy kans gekry toe goewerneur Sam Houston hom aangestel het om 'n Ranger -onderneming te stig om Comanche te volg wat op wit nedersettings toegeslaan het. Hy het veertig man gewerf. Ongeveer twintig Amerikaanse ruitertroepe het die Rangers aangevul. Ongeveer negentig plaaslike militante het by hulle aangesluit.

Die bestaansboere aan die grens van die 1850's was bang vir die Comanche. Net 'n paar dekades vroeër het die Comanche geheers oor die meeste van wat nou die Lone Star -staat is, alhoewel u nie sy ryk in die "ses vlae oor Texas" -wapens in die Capitol sal sien verteenwoordig nie. Die Comanche was oorlogsugtig en beskerm hul veld baie. Hulle was ook entrepreneurs wat 'n vlakte -ekonomie opgebou het rondom hul bekwaamheid in buffeljag en perdeteling. Bekwame Comanche -diplomate het die Spaanse en Franse dikwels onderhandel, en hul handelaars het kermisse in New Mexico en Louisiana oorheers.

Aan die begin van die negentiende eeu het ongeveer 40 000 stamlede Comanchería bewoon, wat oor 'n breë deel van Sentraal -Texas en deur Oklahoma en Kansas gestrek het. Maar teen die tyd dat Ross in 1860 met sy Rangers vertrek het, was die Comanche -land sterk agteruit. Droogte, hongersnood en siektes wat deur vloede van Europese Amerikaners ingevoer is, het hul bevolking tot ongeveer vyfduisend verminder.

Vanaf die 1850's het die Comanche wrede aanvalle op die grens van Texas uitgevoer. Toe Ross en sy troepe noordwes na die Rooi Rivier trek, vind hulle 'n Bybel en ander voorwerpe wat van plaasopstal geneem is. Ross het dit bedoel dat hy op die spoor van Comanche -plunderaars was. Op 19 Desember vind hy Comanche opgeslaan op Mule Creek, ongeveer 'n kwart tot 'n half kilometer bo sy mond op die Pease.

Charles Milton Bell/Bell Collection/Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives

Versamelings van die Confederate Memorial Literary Society

Landskappe verander tyd, veral iewers soos die Pease River -land. Maar toe ek en Parker 'n koeipad volg na 'n plat gebied langs Mule Creek, waar daar plek was vir perde om te wei en waar oewers aan elke kant opstaan, wat beskerming bied teen die wind, kon ek my die toneel voorstel.

Teen die tyd dat ek die webwerf besoek het, het ek genoeg navorsing gedoen om die onbetwiste feite van wat daar gebeur het te weet: die Rangers en kavallerie het die perde van die militante aangeval, te "verward" of moeg, sodat hulle nie deelgeneem het nie. Toe dit verby is, is Naduah, haar jong dogter en 'n Comanche -seun gevange geneem.

Die lyke van 'n paar vermoorde Comanche het op die bevrore grond gelê. Dit was waarskynlik dat 'n handjievol Comanche - miskien ses - ontsnap het. Ross se groep het geen slagoffers gely nie. Die Rangers het ongeveer dertig perde en muile bymekaargemaak. Vier vroue was onder die dooies. Drie mans, waarskynlik nog seuns, is ook dood. Alles het binne 'n paar minute plaasgevind.

Terwyl hy in die jare na die burgeroorlog na 'n openbare amp gesoek het, versier Ross die besonderhede van die gebeurtenis sodat hy meer heldhaftig sou lyk. Boere -legende Charles Goodnight, wat die karakter Woodrow Call geïnspireer het Eensame Duif, Ross het eens '' 'n leuenagtige '' genoem, 'n outydse term vir iemand wat leë aansprake maak vir eie gewin.

Om meer te wete te kom oor die vier-flusher, ry ek tweehonderd myl na die huis van die afgetrede prokureur en voormalige Hood County-distriksregter Tom Crum, aan die Brazosrivier suidoos van Granbury. Crum bestee meer as 25 jaar navorsing oor die bloedbad van 1860. Hy het nege rekeninge gevind wat Ross gegee het, almal anders. 'Hy sou die ideale persoon wees om op die getuiebank te staan,' het Crum gesê, 'totdat hy kruisondervra word.'

Crum en ek het twee middae deurgegaan oor die versameling van primêre en sekondêre bronne wat hy en sy vriend Paul Carlson, emeritus -professor in geskiedenis by Texas Tech, gebruik het om 'n boek oor die dag saam te skryf, Mite, geheue en bloedbad: Die opname van Pease River van Cynthia Ann Parker. Uiteindelik laai Crum my motor af met stapels materiaal om huis toe te neem. Die mees oortuigende bron was 'n vet bindmiddel met drie ringe wat honderde bladsye getik teks bevat, 'n eerstehandse verslag van die negentiende-eeuse Texas-gebeure deur 'n man met die naam John Hamilton Baker.

Baker het in die 1850's in Texas aangekom met die doel om onderwyser te word. Hy het 'n skool in Palo Pinto, 56 myl wes van Fort Worth, geopen en daarna die eerste metodistekerk van die stad gestig voordat hy na Granbury verhuis het, amper 40 myl suidoos. Hy het ook 'n dagboek begin hou en het dit sestig jaar lank aangehou. Baker het saam met die milisie wat Ross's Rangers en kavallerietroepe ondersteun het, gery, en hy het as getuie opgeteken wat op die rivier gebeur het. Nadat die skietery dood is, het Baker berig, het die milisies Ross on the Pease teëgekom. Ross het geskree dat hy en sy party vyftien Comanche teëgekom het, twaalf doodgemaak en drie as gevangenes geneem het. Die lede van die burgermag het Mule Creek so vinnig opgejaag as wat hul verslete perde hulle kon dra.

Ross het meer kreatief geword in die jare sedert die geleentheid. Hierdie keer het hy gesê dat 'n hoofman met die naam Mohee teenwoordig was en beweer dat hy hom mano a mano beveg het en hom vermoor het.

'Ons het slegs vier dooie Indiërs gevind, almal [vroue],' het Baker geskryf. Baker het ook Naduah, haar dogter en 'n jong Comanche -seuntjie gesien wat Ross saam met hom huis toe sou neem en Pease Ross sou noem. Maar daar was geen teken dat die agt ander Comanche Ross beweer het dat hulle doodgemaak het nie. Baker het berig dat daar beslag gelê is op ongeveer dertig Comanche -perde en muile, waarvan sommige deur die burgermag erken is as vee wat van boere gesteel is. Die volgende dag het Baker in sy dagboek geskryf dat die milisie nog drie dooie Comanche gevind het, almal manlik. Baker spesifiseer nie hul ouderdomme nie, maar dit is waarskynlik gebaseer op die definitiewe Oxford -professor Pekka Hämäläinen Die Comanche Ryk, dat twee seuns was - miskien so jonk as tien - wat die taak gehad het om die perde te versorg in ooreenstemming met die tradisionele Comanche -taakverdeling. Die derde was moontlik 'n volwassene wat 'n hoofman was. Baker het altesaam sewe dood getel, nie die dosyn wat Ross beweer het nie. Baker het ook berig dat soveel as ses Comanche ontsnap het.

Slegs dae na die gebeurtenis het Ross aan 'n korrespondent gesê Dallas Herald dat dertien Comanche vermoor is. Daarna het Ross sy amptelike verslag by die goewerneur Houston ingedien. Daarin het Ross gesê dat die aantal dooies twaalf was en gesê dat die Comanche -seun wat gevange geneem is, die seun van 'n hoofman was. (Baker het niks oor 'n hoofman in sy dagboek genoem nie.) Ross het ook gesê dat die aantal diere wat gevang is veertig was. In Januarie 1861 verskyn 'n rekening van Pease River in die Galveston Burgerlik beweer dat Ross hand-aan-hand met 'n hoof van Comanche geveg het. Daarna het verskillende verhale van Pease River 'n geveg met 'n kaptein ingesluit.

In Junie 1875 het die Galveston Nuus 'n brief van Ross gepubliseer waarin die 'korrekte geskiedenis' beskryf word van wat op Mule Creek gebeur het. Hy het die datum as 18 Desember misgis, wat tot dekades se foute in Pease River -rekeninge deur ander skrywers gelei het. Ross het meer kreatief geword in die jare sedert die geleentheid. Hierdie keer het hy gesê dat 'n hoofman met die naam Mohee teenwoordig was en beweer dat hy hom mano a mano beveg het en hom vermoor het. Mohee - die naam wat Ross toegepas het op die Comanche wat hom geskiet het tydens die geveg in die dorp Wichita, blykbaar daar doodgemaak deur een van Ross se mede -Rangers - het weer lewe gekry, net om weer op Mule Creek te sterf. In hierdie verslag van Ross het die aantal Comanche -perde wat versprei of gedood is tot 350 gestyg.

Uiteindelik verander Ross Mohee in Peta Nocona en sê hy, Ross, het die dood van die Comanche op Mule Creek gerig. Crum en Parker is egter seker dat Nocona nie by Pease River vermoor is nie. Quanah Parker het by verskeie geleenthede gesê dat sy pa in die middel van die 1860's gesterf het. Amerikaanse tolk Horace. P. Jones, wat by Camp Cooper, in Texas en by Fort Cobb, in die Indiese gebied gewerk het, en wat Nocona geken het, het gesê dat hy meer as 'n jaar na die slagting in Pease River met Nocona gepraat het.

Destyds Ross se brief aan die Galveston Nuus gepubliseer is, was rekonstruksie besig om in die suide af te neem. Voormalige konfederate soos Ross was besig om terug te keer na die openbare lewe. Ross het in 1873 die balju van McLennan County geword, maar hy het groter politieke ambisies: Hy bedank twee jaar later en word verkies as afgevaardigde van die grondwetlike konvensie van 1875 in Texas. In 1880 het hy die staats senaat gehardloop en gewen. Teen 1885 was hy besig om 'n wedloop om goewerneur te bekyk. 'N Tydgenoot van Ross sê dat dit die "Pease River -geveg en die gevangenskap van Cynthia Ann Parker was wat Sul Ross tot goewerneur van Texas gemaak het."

Victor Rose, 'n joernalis van Victoria wat tydens die burgeroorlog onder Ross diens gedoen het, het 'n rol gespeel om sy voormalige bevelvoerder te help om sy insig in die Pease River -voorval bekend te maak. In korrespondensie bedank Ross Rose vir die manier waarop die joernalis Ross se verhale "aangetrek" het. Hy het Rose opdrag gegee om die Pease River -rekeninge in koerante te laat publiseer, nie as advertensies nie, maar as nuus of hoofartikels. Crum stel in sy boek voor dat Ross bekommerd was dat die publiek die politieke motief in 'n advertensie sou opspoor. 'Ek is tevrede dat die publikasie hiervan my stem baie sal laat styg,' het Ross aan Rose geskryf. Ek het ná 1875 geen bykomende verslae van Ross in koerante opgesoek nie, maar hy het 'n meer effektiewe metode gevind om die verhaal te versprei. DeShields se gewilde boek, Cynthia Ann Parker, verskyn net betyds vir die verkiesing van die goewerneur in 1886. Die boek bevat die volledige veelvuldige verklaring van Ross oor Pease River. Volgens die verklaring was dit 'n groot geveg en baie krygers is dood. Ross was verantwoordelik vir die dood van Peta Nocona, en Cynthia Ann Parker is heroïes herstel. Ross het die verkiesing behoorlik gewen.

Boonop word DeShields se verslag oor Pease River as die standaard aanvaar. 'Van sulke dinge', het skrywer John Graves een keer oor die voorval geskryf, 'is ware mites gebou, en onder die mites wat ons Texans het, is die Parker -verhaal een van die sterkste van almal.' Ross het beslis die krag van sy eie mitologie verstaan.

Hierdie artikel verskyn oorspronklik in die uitgawe van Januarie 2021 van Texas maandeliks met die opskrif "Die stryd wat nie was nie."


Die hoofafrigter: Paul Highton, 41

Die voormalige Wallis -rugbystut is amper dodelik deur sy verslawings. Nou, as welsynsbestuurder van die Salford Red Devils, help hy ander om sy foute te vermy

Toe ek in 2009 by rugby uittree, het ek 'n lys gehad met mense waarvan ek nie wou eindig nie. Ek het spelers met internasionale loopbane gesien wat hul gesin en hul huis verloor het en gesukkel het om te werk. Ek het toe universiteit toe gegaan en toe 'n besigheid begin.

Maar ek het ongeveer 18 maande later begin vra wie ek is. Na 'n operasie is ek tramadol voorgeskryf. Ek het deur 'n egskeiding gegaan terwyl ek 'n pa wou word, en elke keer as ek neerslagtig was, het ek die dwelm gebruik om dit reg te stel. Ek het gegaan van die neem van ses tablette per dag na die neem van 30. My geestesgesondheid het deur die vloer gegaan. By die huis begin ek met argumente as 'n verskoning om te vertrek, wat ek gedoen het. Ek het 'n huisie op Saddleworth Moor gekry: dit was veronderstel om my veilige hawe te wees, waar ek skoon kon word. Maar alleenwees het alles vererger.

Een aand het ek alles in die kelder ingerig om myself dood te maak, maar ek het aan die slaap geraak nadat ek 'n bottel wyn gedrink het. Dit het my lewe gered. In die oggend het ek besef wat ek amper gedoen het. Dit was soos 'n voorhamer aan die kant van my kop. Vir die eerste keer het ek erken dat ek 'n probleem het. Tog het ek nie geweet of dit 'n dwelmprobleem, 'n drankprobleem of depressie is nie, of wat ek eers moet aanpak. Ek het dus 'n e -pos gestuur na die Sporting Chance -kliniek en
Ek het 'n antwoord gekry sodra ek terapie begin kry, drink en dwelms val, en ek vind konstruktiewe maniere om my emosies te hanteer. Dit het my gehelp om te sien wie in my netwerk die mense was waarmee ek openlik en eerlik kon wees.

& ldquoMense dink dat onklaarraking slegs met diegene in uiterste situasies gebeur. Die waarheid is dat hulle met enigiemand kan gebeur. Ons sukkel almal. Dit gaan oor die bewustheid van u triggers, hoe u optree wanneer moeilike situasies ontstaan ​​en hoe u die volgende keer kan verbeter. & Rdquo


13 James Doohan - Ontbrekende hele vinger

Van afgesnyde vingers gepraat, die akteur James Doohan, veral bekend daarvoor dat hy Montgomery "Scotty" Scott gespeel het Star Trek, se regtervinger geamputeer nadat dit tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog geskiet is. Die geleentheid is eintlik redelik mal. Een nag, terwyl hy tussen bevelposte gaan, het een van sy eie mans, 'n Kanadese soldaat, Doohan ses keer geskiet. Vier van die koeëls het hom in die been getref, een het hom in die bors getref, maar is deur 'n metaalsigaretkas gestop en die ander een het deur sy vinger gegaan. Hy het dit later laat afneem. As jy deurgaan en kyk Star Trek, daar is 'n paar oomblikke waarop u die vermiste vinger kan sien, maar hy was uitstekend daarin om dit weg te steek. Nie uit skaamte nie, maar oor watter soort toekoms sou dit werklik wees as ons nie ons vingers kan vervang nie. Nog 'n akteur, Walter Emanuel Jones, die oorspronklike Black Ranger van Power Rangers, ontbreek ook sy middelvinger. Hy het dit tydens 'n ongeluk verloor toe hy vier jaar oud was, maar hy het dit nooit verder verduidelik nie.


10 van die beste kosse om depressie te beveg - van vis tot vrugte

Toe professor Felice Jacka in 2005 vir die eerste keer die gevolge van dieet op geestesgesondheid begin bestudeer het, het mense gedink dat sy 'n bietjie mal was.

'Die suggestie van wat ons eet, kan vir baie mense 'n invloed hê op ons gevoel, maar nie op ware medisyne nie,' sê die Australiër.

'Dit lyk asof baie mense 'n minagting het vir die idee dat dieet van belang kan wees vir geestesgesondheid.

"Destyds was daar eenvoudig nie veel wetenskaplike bewyse wat kos en bui verbind nie."

Jacka, een van die wêreld se voorste navorsers in voedingspsigiatrie, het weens haar persoonlike ervaring in haar vakgebied begin belangstel.

Lees meer
Verwante artikels

Sy het as kind 'n angsversteuring opgedoen, en het toe as tiener in Melbourne groot angsaanvalle en depressie gekry.

Maar sy het gefokus op haar oefening, dieet en slaap - en teen haar laat twintigs het sy herstel.

Nadat hy voorheen 'n kunsskool bygewoon het, het Jacka besluit om na die universiteit terug te keer om sielkunde te studeer, en 'n PhD voltooi wat so belangrike bevindings gemaak het dat dit op die voorblad van die American Journal of Psychiatry verskyn het.

Die grootste onthulling daarvan was dat vroue wat 'n dieet ryk aan groente, vrugte, onverwerkte rooivleis, vis en volgraan eet, minder geneig is tot depressie of angsversteurings as hul eweknieë wat meer tipies 'westerse' dieet gevul het met verwerkte voedsel. as vleispasteie, hamburgers, pizza, skyfies, witbrood en koeldrank.

Miskien is dit egter meer verrassend dat diegene wie se dieet rondom vis, tofu, bone, neute, jogurt en rooiwyn draai, ook MEER depressie gehad het.

(Dit blyk te wees as gevolg van 'n gebrek aan rooivleis. In teenstelling met al haar voorspellings, het verdere navorsing wat professor Jacka gedoen het, aan die lig gebring dat vroue wat meer rooivleis geëet het, 20-30 persent minder geneig was om depressiewe angsversteuring te hê. ).

Jacka, wat nou direkteur is van die Food & amp Mood Center aan die Deakin Universiteit in Australië, en stigter en president van die International Society for Nutritional Psychiatry Research, het gesê: 'Toe ek ondersoek instel, het ek 'n baie duidelike verband gesien tussen die verbruik van rooivleis en geestelike gesondheid - maar nie in die rigting wat ek verwag het nie. ”

Haar navorsing het duidelik getoon dat "in vergelyking met vroue wat die aanbevole hoeveelheid rooivleis (65-100 g drie tot vier keer per week) gebruik, diegene wat minder of meer as dit eet, ongeveer twee keer meer geneig was tot 'n kliniese depressie of angsversteuring. ”

Sedert die eerste navorsingsartikel het professor Jacka meer as 150 eweknie-geëvalueerde wetenskaplike artikels gepubliseer wat die algemene opinie oor die oorsake van geestesongesteldheid verander het.

In 2015 het sy byvoorbeeld ontdek dat gemorskos in wese ons brein krimp - of ten minste die linkerhippocampus (wat deels emosie, geheue en geestesgesondheid reguleer). 'Ons het gevind dat dit nie problematies was om te veel van die goeie dinge en te veel van die slegte goed te kry nie,' sê Jacka.

Maar dit was haar SMILES -studie (Supporting the Modification of lifestyle in Lowered Emotional States) wat in 2017 gepubliseer is, wat 'n lewensverandering vir almal met geestesgesondheid kan bewys.

Vir die proef is mans en vroue met kliniese depressie 'n dieetondersteuningsgroep of sosiale ondersteuning toegeken.

"Die dieet is ontwikkel met alles wat ons tot dusver geleer het oor die verband tussen dieet, gesondheid van die ingewande en geestes- en breingesondheid, en was gebaseer op 'n tradisionele Mediterreense dieet en die Australiese dieetriglyne," sê Jacka.

Lees meer
Verwante artikels

'Die span het dit die ModiMed -dieet genoem om aan te dui dat dit 'n aangepaste weergawe van 'n tradisionele Mediterreense dieet is.

'Dit is spesifiek ontwerp om maklik te maak en te volg - en goedkoop.'

Die plan vereis dat jy meer vrugte, groente, volgraan, peulgewasse, neute, lae-vet suiwelprodukte, vis en maer vleis eet, terwyl verwerkte gemorskos en alkohol verminder word. Die resultate was verstommend.

Na drie maande het 'n derde van die deelnemers aan die ModiMed -dieet hul geestelike welstand genoeg verbeter om te sê dat hul depressie in remissie gegaan het, in vergelyking met slegs 8% in die tweede, sosiale ondersteuningsgroep.

'Eenvoudig gesê, hoe meer mense hul dieet verbeter, hoe meer word hul depressie verbeter,' sê sy.

Professor Jacka het haar bevindings uit die afgelope 15 jaar se navorsing oor 'n nuwe boek - Brain Changer: How Diet Can Save Your Mental Health - gedistilleer, kompleet met maaltydplanne en resepte vir verbeterde geestelike welstand.

Lees meer
Verwante artikels

Sy meen ons moet ons voedsel as die basis van ons geestes- en breingesondheid gedurende ons lewens beskou.

'Alhoewel ons al jare vertel dat ultra-verwerkte voedsel wat baie energie bevat en skadelike bymiddels en min vesel en voedingstowwe het, meer siektes en vroeë dood aan chroniese siektes sal beteken, het ons eers onlangs die implikasies daarvan vir ons geestesgesondheid verstaan en die gesondheid van ons brein. ”

Belangriker nog, in teenstelling met baie risikofaktore van geestesongesteldheid - soos u gene, mishandeling, aansienlike trauma of fisiese oorsake soos kopbeserings - is dieet iets wat ons self kan aanspreek.

'Wat ons in ons mond sit, maak regtig saak,' sê sy. "Moenie verlei word deur vinnige, goedkoop, lekker kos nie - die prys wat u betaal, is regtig nie die moeite werd nie."

Professor Jacka & aposs Top tien koswenke

1 Kies vrugte, groente en neute as 'n peuselhappie. Eet elke dag 3 porsies vrugte en 30 g (1½ eetlepels) ongesoute neute.

2 Sluit groente by elke maaltyd in. Eet elke dag blaargroentes en tamaties.

3 Kies volgraanbrood en graan. Baseer u porsiegroottes op u aktiwiteitsvlakke.

4 Eet peulgewasse (lensies, ertjies, kekerertjies, boontjies, sojabone en grondboontjies) drie of vier keer per week.

5 Eet ten minste twee keer per week olierige vis.

6 Eet drie of vier keer per week maer rooivleis, maar beperk u porsiegroottes tot 65-100 g.

7 Sluit elke dag twee tot drie porsies suiwel in. Kies vetprodukte en gewone jogurt.

8 Gebruik olyfolie as die belangrikste vet. Gebruik elke dag 3 eetlepels ekstra suiwer olyfolie.

9 Stoor lekkers vir spesiale geleenthede.

10 Water is die beste drankie.

Kosverhale

Voorbeeldmenu van ModiMed

Met die eerste oogopslag lyk hierdie plan redelik beperkend, maar die idee is bloot om leiding te gee. Dit is nie bedoel om streng nagekom te word met die meting, weeg en opneem van voedsel nie.

Breakfast: 1 poached egg on 2 slices soya and linseed bread with avocado, tomato and spinach

Snack: 200g Greek yoghurt with 1 cup fresh or frozen berries

Lunch: 1–2 wholegrain flat breads with 95g tinned tuna and green salad Snack: 30g almonds and 30g dried fruit

Dinner: Grilled lamb steak with vegetables and brown rice

Snack: Smoothie (250 ml reduced-fat milk with a banana and 1–2 teaspoons honey)

Breakfast: ½ cup baked beans on 2 slices wholegrain toast with tomato, mushrooms, avocado and herbs

Lunch: 3 wholegrain crackers with salad and 20g reduced-fat cheese Snack: An apple

Dinner: Chicken pasta with vegetables and pesto

Breakfast: Omelette made with 1 egg, with red onion, tomato, herbs and 40g grated reduced-fat cheese on 2 slices wholegrain toast

Lunch: ½ cup tinned mixed beans with 1 cup salad vegetables and ½–1 cup couscous

Snack: An orange and 15g walnuts

Dinner: Beef stir-fry with sugarsnap peas, broccoli, carrot, asparagus spring onions, cashews and noodles


Meganika

Accuracy is weighed against the target's evasion when determining if an attack hits or misses according to: Ώ] ΐ]



Chance to hit can not be lower than 5% but can hit 100%.

    , Worthy Foe, Vigilant Strike, and The Effigon The Effigon
    Gold Amulet Requires Level 57 (12-20)% increased Rarity of Items found +25 to Dexterity
    Adds 12 to 24 Fire Damage to Attacks
    +(100-150) to Accuracy Rating
    +(100-150) to Evasion Rating
    +(20-30)% to Fire Resistance
    Your Hits can't be Evaded by Blinded Enemies
    Damage Penetrates 10% Fire Resistance against Blinded Enemies By light we are shadowed,
    in darkness we are bound. will raise the chance to hit to 100%, ignoring all accuracy and evasion stats of the attacker and defender respectively. does the same, in reverse all attacks against the subject will hit regardless of accuracy.

Spells do not benefit from accuracy since evasion does not aid in avoiding them.


Billy Martin, Baseball's Brawling Genius, May Belong In Hall Of Fame

“Billy had to be dragged off [Clint] Courtney, flailing and thrashing like a madman,” writes Bill Pennington in Billy Martin: Baseball's Flawed Genius, his new biography of the fiery baseball player and manager (Houghton, Mifflin, Harcourt, 527 pages, $30). “It is how most of Billy’s fights or near-fights ended. From Clint Courtney to his dustup with Reggie Jackson in a Boston dugout twenty-five years later, the final scenes are always the same: Billy, wild-eyed and out of control, trying to get at someone to continue the fight.”

Almost all of his punching bags took a pounding. “Maybe Billy was just better at punching people than the rest of us,” said Tommy Lasorda, Martin’s friend and the longtime Dodgers’ manager. “Maybe that’s why everyone knew about it when it happened. He was laying guys out.” In 1979 Battling Billy punched a marshmallow salesman. Yes that was really his job. The man fell to the marble floor of the hotel “with a thud" a security man then took him to a hospital where doctors sewed 15 stitches to close the gashes in his face. During the previous year a young reporter caught Martin off guard and asked too many tough questions. He ended up in the hospital where he was treated for a cut lip, three chipped teeth, and a gash above his eyes. His medical bills, mostly for dental work, were $7500 ($27,000 adjusted for inflation today). Martin’s legal adviser and friend arranged to have a third party pick up the tab. During Martin’s playing days in 1960 he was at the center of a mauling of a pitcher, Jim Brewer, who required two surgeries to repair a fractured orbital bone near his eye. Brewer and the Chicago Cubs sued Martin for $2 million. Deadpanned Billy, “Ask Mr. Wrigley [the team owner] how he would like it, cash or check.” After a lengthy trial, Martin was ordered to pay Brewer $22,000 (almost $175,000 today) for his “suffering” and legal fees. The amount exceeded a year’s salary for Martin.

After reading Pennington’s thoroughly entertaining and brutally honest biography, its safe to say that as both a player and as a manager Billy Martin led one of the most violent and tumultuous lives of any baseball player in history. The chip on his shoulder was superhuman. Mickey Mantle, Martin’s close friend and teammate, said that “Billy is the only guy in the world who can hear someone give him the finger.”

Recounting each brawl on the field and in barrooms in vivid detail, Pennington paints a portrait of an outlaw from the Wild West with a hair-trigger temper who punched first and asked questions later, if at all. I recently enjoyed a two-hour conversation with Pennington, an award-winning sports writer for Die New York Times, at Foley’s NY Pub & Restaurant across the street from the Empire State Building, where the author appeared for a book-signing. Pennington said that “Martin is mostly remembered for fighting and getting fired, a drinking, kicking, lunatic— a multifaceted guy lost to history. There’s so much more to this guy than this caricature. How do you compile a winning percentage of .553, which is better than 13 managers in the Hall of Fame? He took over teams that stunk and turned them into winners.”

Of all the aspects of his genius, his truest may have been to ability to motivate men to believe in themselves. Loyal teammates and players spoke of him having their backs, either by waging war against owners or umpires. “He wanted others to know he was fighting for them,” Pennington writes. While most fans can recall his clashes with Reggie Jackson, the mercurial Rickey Henderson adored Martin as a father figure and played hard for him. In Martin’s era the press sometimes depicted Latino players, even Roberto Clemente, as hot-tempered, sullen, or moody rather than probe the financial and cultural barriers they had to overcome. Coming from a broken home himself, Martin was able to identify with them. Five of Martin’s Latino players named their sons after him. Martin was also exceedingly generous, never turning down an invitation to an umpire's charity event.

Pennington includes a version of Casey Stengel’s famous quote that the secret to managing is keep the five guys who hate you from the four guys who haven’t made up their minds. After tough losses Martin flipped over many a post-game buffet table, sending deli meats and mustard flying across players’ shoes and lockers. Martin publicly browbeated players whom he thought were dogging it or skipped the brow part and simply beat them. He clobbered a Twins pitcher named Dave Boswell, a much taller and heavier man. “Dave’s face was all black and blue and he looked like he had been hit with Jake LaMotta or something,” said teammate Jim Kaat. During a fight at a hotel bar, Ed Lee Whitson, an underperforming pitcher with the Yankees, kicked Martin in the groin. “Billy was doubled over in pain,” Pennington writes. “But then he stood up straight and took a deep breath, like something a character in an action movie would do. And, then, in a firm, defiant voice he said to Whitson, ‘Now, I’m going to have to kill you.” You’ll have to buy the book to learn the four-round fight’s outcome. Suffice to say, it gets even better than that.

As a young Tye reporter covering Martin from 1980 through 1989, Pennington was an eyewitness to many of the events in his book including Martin v. Whitson. But this is no memoir. Pennington is the Robert Caro of baseball biographers. His bibliography of books, magazine articles, and newspaper archives runs eight pages long. Pennington, a reporter’s reporter, conducted 225 interviews not just of players and coaches, but bartenders, subway workers, and hotel managers— virtually anyone who ever crossed paths with Martin.

Pennington, an elegant writer in the tradition of Times legends Red Smith, Dave Anderson, and George Vecsey, brings to life his Shakespearean tragic hero, a King Lear in pinstripes raging against the baseball storms. “It was always Billy against the world,” Jim Kaat said. “It’s almost as if needs adversaries in his life.”

The narrative arc of Billy Martin: Flawed Genius resembles a sine wave. Martin is hired with great fanfare because he is the people’s choice. His team, usually lousy, vastly exceeds expectations and wins their division, the pennant, or, in the Yankees’ case, a World Series. Martin can’t stay away from bars and gets into fights like a real gunslinger. (“Guys would line up to be the one to knock him out,” Pennington told me. “He didn’t draw. He just hit.”) Martin’s brazen defiance of authority costs him his job. A fierce public backlash against ownership ensues. The front office switchboard lights up and either the owner hides out, fearing for his life, or is hung in effigy. It happened in Minnesota, Detroit, Texas, Oakland, and in New York. Martin lost nine managerial jobs in all, including Yankees owner George Steinbrenner’s serial hiring and firing.

Besides winning wherever he landed. Pennington attributes Martin’s deep appeal to his blue-collar everyman ethic: “He told his bosses to shove it. “Often.” How many of us wish we would have done the same, particularly working for a boss as tyrannical as Steinbrenner who once fired a secretary for ordering him the wrong sandwich. In Minnesota Calvin Griffith, the Twins’ owner insisted that Martin meet with him two or three times a week to discuss strategy at any time, except when he took a nap, from 5:00 to 5:30. Martin knocked on his door one day at 5:00 and at 5:15 on another, explaining those were the only times he could meet. Griffith gave up and canceled the meetings. In Texas, Martin, ordered the public address announcer to play John Denver’s “Thank God, I’m a Country Boy” during the 7 th inning stretch instead of “Take Me Out to the Ballgame,” which the owner demanded. Martin was terminated. Echoing Kaat, Martin’s son Billy Joe said. “Sometimes it was almost as if he manufactured excuses to get out of a situation."

At Foley’s, Pennington laughed repeating Yankees manager and executive Lou Pinella’s line that whenever Steinbrenner said Martin “looked tan and rested” the owner signaled his intention to rehire him. “As soon as he took over it was like watching the picture of Dorian Gray,” Pennington said. If you ever needed proof that you should leave your work place troubles back at the office, look how much Martin aged in the photos of this book.

Much of Martin’s volatility and empathy probably stemmed from his Dickensian childhood in West Berkeley, the city’s poor section at the bottom of the hills. His mother, Jenny Martin, worked at a speakeasy and whorehouse and put a knife to his paternal father’s neck, threatening to kill him if didn’t leave or ever returned. Billy had to fight his way to school against kids who mocked him as Horn and Pinocchio because of his big nose, which he had multiple surgeries to correct. “Don’t take shit from anybody,” his mother taught him. Pennington presents numerous memorable scenes with Jenny. One of Martin’s three wives tried to learn the secrets to his mother’s Italian cooking to keep her husband happy, but Jenny sabotaged her by rushing through steps in the recipes when she was in the bathroom, apparently because Jenny wanted her son to come home for momma’s meals. While managing Oakland an elderly woman in the stands asked a cameraman to summon “the little cocksucker" for her. Of course she turned out to be his mom, visiting from her nearby neighborhood.

For much of his life off the field or away from a bar, Martin was a fish out water. Pennington touches on the “insidious disease” of alcoholism. “Why didn’t someone talk to him about his drinking?” the Rangers’ Tom Grieve asked. ”But that’s not what people did 40 years ago. I admit I think about it now, even forty years later. It was sad because I loved playing for him.” Pennington speculates that had Martin been born in 1948 rather than 1928, he would have received help in a more enlightened age. My WebMD impression is that his bouts with the bottle may have been the tip of his problem. He almost appears manic depressive or to have had a bipolar disorder. Whatever the case, he was certainly hell-bent on his own self-destruction long before medications like Prozac could have blunted some of his personality’s sharper edges. Maybe today he would see a psychiatrist, something Pennington reveals that he never did. A close baseball friend of mine told me that Martin reminds him of another “charming sociopath,” Hal Chase the sinister Yankees first baseman a century ago.

For those of old enough to remember, Martin’s death in a car crash in 1989 at age 61 somehow seemed shocking and inevitable at the same time. On Christmas Night, no less, he and a drinking buddy were heading home on icy roads from one of the few open bars in town and he wasn’t wearing a seatbelt that probably could have stopped his head from smashing a windshield. Only a miracle could have saved him this time.

From the vantage point of 25 years later, all he psychodrama swirling around Martin obscures his keen baseball mind. “Risk didn’t worry Billy,” the awe-struck Hall of Fame manager Tony LaRussa said. “His genius is really not properly understood.” In the game’s vast continuum, Martin learned from his manager, the crafty Casey Stengel in the 1950s, who learned from his scrappy manager, John McGraw, in the early 1900s. Like a master chess player The Brat, his less affectionate nickname, was usually thinking three plays ahead of his opponent. He was also adept at stealing signs. But the main goal of the much-vaunted Billy Ball, which earned him a Time magazine cover story, was “pressuring offensive tactics.” To manufacture runs, he had his players execute squeeze plays. Rod Carew stole home seven times in 1969. Martin even orchestrated successful triple steals with the bases loaded infielders were at a loss trying to decide where to throw the ball. “He had a standing rule with the Tigers,” Pennington writes. “Any player who got hit with a pitch with the bases loaded would get $150 in cash and the right to pick his next day off.”

His trick plays were so old-school that they would have made McGraw proud. There was the hidden ball ploy whereby an infielder would pretend to throw the ball back to the pitcher and tag out a napping runner. With men on first and third, the trail runner would stumble off first to get in a rundown and the lead runner would break for home. He usually scored. For the perfect spitball, Martin had a pitcher rub the inside of a pant leg with soap. As the game wore on, the oozing sweat created a slimy mess in a location no umpire dared check.

I couldn’t help but wonder what a wonderful jolt a tactician like Bill Martin would give today’s somewhat sluggish game. How often do you see a steal of home, let alone a suicide squeeze? “It’s a lost era we will never see again,” Pennington told me. “Managing by the book is safer. He’s a guy who managed totally by his gut and didn’t care what people thought. He lived by his own rules. It had to be his own rules.”


Opinion: Being coeliac isn’t a choice – here’s why more awareness is needed

© Supplied

Having been forced into eating gluten free since 2016, food and drink writer Rebecca Shearer discusses why we should all be taking some time to reflect on our choices this Coeliac Awareness Week.

As much of the hospitality industry has started to reopen its doors, people are able to go out and eat in restaurants, cafes and bars for the first time in a long time.

But not everyone is able to rejoice in the fact that we can have a meal out with friends again, namely those who are sufferers of coeliac disease.

Coeliac disease is an auto-immune condition in which the body fails to digest gluten. Sufferers can experience a whole range of symptoms, including bloatedness, nausea, tiredness, mouth ulcers or anaemia, if they eat gluten, which is mostly found in wheat, barley, rye and some oats.

Own experience

From my own experience, I know well that following a gluten-free diet sounds so much easier than it is. I’ve been unable to eat gluten since August 2016 following a horrible stomach virus that has caused me to develop an intolerance to it, though I am yet to be tested for coeliac disease itself.

Often, people mistake a gluten-free diet to be a “fad” or lifestyle choice, in the same way as veganism and vegetarianism are, without actually realising that there is an allergy involved. It’s often a source of frustration when people assume that not eating gluten means you’re trying to be “healthy”.

Coeliac disease and gluten intolerances aren’t a choice, nor are they a lifestyle. As society isn’t as gluten-free as it perhaps could be, having to eat a gluten-free diet means constant planning, constant reading of labels and constant groans of frustration when something that’s made from potato, rice or corn seems to have been turned into something glutinous by being baked, fried or battered in flour.

Next time

The next time you’re in the supermarket, take a quick look at what goes into a product that you would usually have the glutinous version of – I bet that the gluten-free version will have so many more additives and additional ingredients than you may have realised.

We’re not trying to be healthy, we’re just trying to not make ourselves sick.

The next time the country goes into panic-buying mode and you’re desperate to make spaghetti Bolognese but your local supermarket is out of pasta, I urge you not to reach for the gluten-free version just because “it’s all they had”.

March 2020

In March 2020, when this was reality, myself and many people suffering from a gluten intolerance or coeliac disease around the country found that we couldn’t purchase the basics, including pasta and bread and in some cases even gluten-free flour, because others were sweeping them off the shelves when all the glutinous food was gone.

It wasn’t fair and it’s this kind of ignorance towards the impact it has on other people that those who can’t eat gluten face on a daily basis.

Restaurants and cafes aren’t immune to this. Some do try to offer a limited version of their menu that is gluten free, while others offer no such thing and instead shift their focus to vegan food.

Veganism isn’t an allergy and if a vegan meal was to come into contact with an animal product, the consumer wouldn’t necessarily know about it as they wouldn’t react.

Reaction

If gluten-free food was to come into contact with even the slightest bit of gluten, even if it’s being made on the same counter as a glutinous product before it, someone who is gluten intolerant will know about it within 24 hours of eating it.

Home cooking was a big feature during the first lockdown of the pandemic, but for many who suffer from a gluten allergy or intolerance, it’s been our only option since we were diagnosed as there still isn’t enough awareness out there about it.

So, as Coeliac Awareness Week takes place this May 10-16, take some time to consider how you can help us in your day-to-day life.

Choices

When you’re reaching for the gluten-free sandwich at Marks & Spencer because you fancy “being healthier”, why not consider whether there’s an alternative instead? The next time you’re in a restaurant and want to have a burger with a gluten-free bun because you want to be “healthier”, take a moment to think about whether that will stop someone with a gluten intolerance from being able to enjoy their meal further down the line.

And for all the restaurant, cafe, bar and supermarket owners reading this, we need you to help us bring more awareness into the public conscience, take us just as seriously as you take diets that are a choice and lead the way in making our society a much easier place to be a foodie when your diet is gluten-free.


Avoiding heat illness

She didn’t say “Hi” or even acknowledge our presence as she jogged past us on the trail that hot August day in Lassen Volcanic National Park in northern California. Even at an elevation of 6,000 feet, it was an unseasonably warm 80 degrees and this young runner, no older than 18 years old, wore skimpy jogging clothes that exposed her skin to the searing sun, while carrying no drinking water. Sweating profusely and with skin bright red, she ran up the trail and out of sight, miles from any trailhead.

A half-mile or so up the trail, we again met up with her. Now sitting on a rock crying, she told us her story. She had been jogging with friends when she became separated. She was lost and had been going up and down trails for hours frantically trying to find her way back. Dehydrated and near heat exhaustion, she was so embarrassed and scared that she didn’t ask for help when she passed us the first time. We gave her water and sat her in the shade as her friends caught up with her and brought her back.

We think of heat illnesses, such as heat exhaustion, heat stroke, or dehydration, as something that affects firefighters wearing heavy protective clothing in hot conditions or something that our soldiers face fighting in the desert. Heat illnesses affect many of us in our daily lives, however. Every year we hear of high school football players that die from heat stroke during summer practice. In athletes, heat stroke is the second leading cause of death. Elderly die in the cities during heat waves. Hikers die, as do those stranded when their cars break down.

In a normal year, an average of 175 Americans die of heat illnesses. During the heat wave of 1980, 1,250 Americans died. The sad thing is that heat illnesses are largely preventable through planning and common sense.

The body and heat

The body produces heat from food and from muscles during exercise. Normal metabolism generates 2,000 to 5,000 kilocalories per day and would raise the temperature of your body 1.5 degrees every hour if it were not for the body’s cooling mechanisms. When you exercise heavily or carry a backpack in hot temperatures, heat production by the body increases five to tenfold. Add to that hot and humid environmental conditions and it is easy to overheat, a process called hyperthermia.

Normally, the body reduces heat by sending more blood to the skin where blood vessels dilate to bring the blood closer to the surface where it can be cooled by the lower air temperature. This only works when the air temperature is lower than the body temperature. Normal core body temperature is 98.6 degrees. When air temperatures exceed 95 degrees, the blood is not cooled in this manner.

Sweating is another way the body uses to lower the temperature of the blood. As the sweat evaporates, it cools the body down. Each quart of sweat that is evaporated on the skin removes about 580 kilocalories of body heat. At this rate, body temperature can normally be regulated.

It is necessary to drink 2 to 3 quarts of water per day to maintain normal metabolism. With sweating caused by physical exercise or in hot temperatures, this can easily increase to 4 to 6 quarts per day (1 to 1.5 gallons), or in extreme conditions over 8 quarts per day. It is possible to sweat away 1 to 2 quarts of water per hour in extreme conditions. The U.S. Army warns that soldiers in hot environments can lose 15 quarts (almost 4 gallons) of water per day.

Humidity also leads to overheating. When the humidity level is over 80%, sweat does not evaporate and the body’s ability to cool is dramatically decreased. Sweat produced drips from the skin and only leads to dehydration without providing cooling.

If enough water is not consumed to replace the lost water, blood vessels in the skin constrict since there is not enough volume of blood to keep them open and sweating ceases in order to conserve water for the body. This leads to the body overheating. When heat-control mechanisms of the body are overloaded, the increased body heat rapidly causes tissue damage to the vital organs such as the brain, heart, kidneys, and muscles, and disrupts the chemical processes of the body.

Four environmental conditions determine the risk of heat illness: The absolute air temperature (ambient temperature) is the air temperature as measured with a thermometer in the shade and is the least important cause. Solar load is the amount of direct sun on the skin and can be an important contributor to heat illness. Full sun on bare skin in severe conditions can add up to 150 kilocalories per hour of heat load to an individual. As mentioned, humidity determines the rate that sweat can evaporate and cause cooling. The drier the air, the greater the evaporation and amount of cooling. Humidity is more important than temperature in determining the risk of overheating. Finally, wind speed is an important factor in assisting evaporation. Cool winds reduce heat stress, while hot winds increase it.

Prevention of heat illnesses

Avoid dehydration: The human body is 75% water and needs a constant new supply since we have no method of storing it in our body. Dehydration, drinking less water than the body needs, is the major cause of all heat-related illnesses. Unfortunately, the body is already two to five percent dehydrated before we begin to feel thirsty and losing only one quart more can produce severe dehydration.

The body conserves water by not producing as much urine when it is dehydrated and urine becomes concentrated and dark yellow in color. Urinating plentiful amounts of light-colored urine shows that you are not dehydrated.

Water loss needs to be replaced, requiring a conscious, continual effort to stay properly hydrated to avoid dehydration. Drink fluids even if you are not thirsty. While consuming 2 to 3 quarts of water a day is pretty easy, it gets harder to comply when water needs increase. Plan your daily water consumption, drinking early and often. If you expect to lose 4 to 5 quarts in a day, drink one quart of water when you wake up, one quart with each of three meals, and small amounts frequently throughout the day. The U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine estimates that the maximum amount of water that can be absorbed per hour is 1.3 quarts and recommends drinking about two cups every 30 minutes during intense periods of work. For hikers and backpackers, a good rule is to drink every time you take a break or stop briefly. During physical activity, it is easier for your body to handle small amounts of water spread out during the day rather than a large amount all at once.

People avoid drinking enough for many reasons, but it is often because their water bottle is difficult to get out of their pack. Water carrier systems, such as the Platypus or CamelBak hydration systems, are very convenient. They consist of collapsible plastic water containers that are placed in your pack or in a separate water backpack. Using a plastic tube from the water container, you can sip on water as you hike without having to reach for a bottle.

Water needs to be drinkable. Water left in the sun on a 105-degree day will be too hot to drink. Plain, cool water at 60 to 70 degrees is more likely to be consumed, and flavorings, such as Kool Aid, Gatorade, lemonade, and others, may help encourage drinking.

Prolonged sweating from heat or exercise can also cause loss of body salts, called electrolytes. Electrolytes are minerals, such as sodium, potassium, and chloride, in the body fluids. They are essential to maintain fluid balance and function of the nerves and muscles.

Sodium chloride (salt) is lost in large enough amounts during heavy sweating to cause medical problems. When an individual replaces lost fluid with normal water, it further dilutes the concentration of sodium in the body. This salt deficit, called hyponatremia, is essentially water intoxication and symptoms may mimic heat exhaustion or gastroenteritis, making a diagnosis difficult. Recently, it has been recognized that many marathon runners develop hyponatremia during races, and rangers at the Grand Canyon National Park have also seen this problem in hikers.

As with dehydration, the good news is that prevention is fairly easy. Experts recommend eating salty snack foods such as Saltine crackers, Pringles potato chips, Cheez-Its, salted nuts, or drinking sports drinks. Single serving bags of Cheez-Its contain 340 mg of sodium and 20 ounces of Gatorade has 114 mg of sodium, enough to prevent hyponatremia. Salt pills, which irritate the lining of the stomach, are no longer recommended on a routine basis.

Acclimatize: The body takes time to acclimatize to temperature. Firefighters who are brought from the cool coastal areas to inland fires where air temperatures are over 100 degrees suffer a high rate of heat-related illness. It takes several days to as long as a week to acclimatize to hot weather. During this time the body will sweat more and lose more salt, which can lead to electrolyte imbalance. With acclimatization, sweating becomes less and the sweat glands secrete less salt.

When first in a hot environment, allow yourself plenty of time to get used to the temperatures before exercising or working for prolonged amounts of time in the heat. To fully acclimatize can take 7 to 10 days, during which time you should exercise about two hours per day. While doing this at home works, most of us don’t have this amount of time to acclimatize when we travel to a new area, such as on vacation. In such cases, minimize the amount of work you do and maximize water intake.

Watch very young and very old individuals carefully in hot weather, as their bodies do not regulate temperature well and they can rapidly become overheated. Age does affect the severity of heat illness. Heat cramps in an 18-year-old may be heat exhaustion in a 40-year-old and heat stroke in someone age 60. Individuals with weight or alcohol problems are especially prone to the heat.

Conserve body water: Minimize or avoid sweat-producing activities in work and travel. This is especially important in survival situations. Stay cool, stay in the shade, and do not lie on hot ground, which can be 30 to 45 degrees hotter than the air. Often, cooler ground can be found by digging just a few inches below the surface. Breathe through your nose to reduce water loss and do not smoke. Eat at a minimum, as water is needed for digestion, and avoid eating fatty foods since they require more water to digest.

Hike or work in the early morning or late afternoon when the sun is low and the heat is less intense, causing less water loss from sweating. Walk at an easy pace and wear lightweight, light-colored, loose-fitting clothes. These allow more ventilation and reflect the heat better than dark colors. Don’t expose your skin to the hot sun and wear a broad-brimmed hat to keep the sun off your face.

Other precautions

Get plenty of rest. The U. S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine has found that fatigue and lack of sleep reduces the body’s ability to regulate heat, causing overheating.

Be aware of the environmental conditions that you may face. Know the anticipated temperature, humidity, wind, and solar load predicted for the day and plan your activity and water intake accordingly. The National Weather Service heat index is a way to help determine the risk of developing heat illnesses. It is a chart that combines the air temperature and relative humidity to derive the “apparent air temperature,” essentially how hot it really feels when humidity is added to the air temperature. For example, an air temperature of 95 degrees with 60 percent humidity has the same effect on your body (apparent air temperature) as 114 degrees. These are for temperatures taken in shady conditions. In full sun, they can be up to 15 degrees higher. At an apparent air temperature above 90 degrees, risk of heat illness is high and activity should be adjusted accordingly.

Certain drugs and medications taken in hot weather conditions can promote heat illness. Avoid taking drugs such as atropine and anti-motion sickness drugs which hinder sweating, beta-blockers which decrease cardiac output, diuretics which promote dehydration, antihistamines and antidepressants which alter normal physiology, and drugs such as hallucinogens and cocaine which increase muscle activity and therefore body heat. Some of these should not be stopped on your own, so talk to your doctor if you anticipate this being a problem.

Management of heat illnesses

Dehydration: Thirst, irritability, nausea, and weakness occur with 5% loss of body water, only 2.5 quarts for a 150-pound person. A 10% loss will cause headache, dizziness, inability to walk, and tingling sensations of the arms and legs. At 15% loss, the tongue becomes swollen, vision can dim, numb sensations occur on the skin, and urination may be painful. Any greater water loss can cause death.

Treatment is to replace lost fluids by drinking water, juice, lemonade, Gatorade or similar sports drinks, soup, or decaffeinated coffee. Drinking alcoholic and caffeinated beverages is discouraged since they increase urination and promote dehydration. Drink until you begin urinating pale yellow urine, remembering that it can take 6 to 8 hours for the fluids in the body to become balanced before urine production will begin.

If the person is not alert or is having prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, they should be evacuated immediately to medical care so that intravenous fluids can be given.

Heat Edema: Heat edema (swelling) is common, especially in the elderly, during the first few days in a hot environment. The hands, ankles, and feet become puffy or swollen and rings may become tight or difficult to remove. Remove rings or constrictive jewelry and minimize walking. When resting, keep the feet elevated. The swelling should resolve on its own within a few days. If leg swelling is associated with shortness of breath or the individual is otherwise ill, swelling may be due to other causes and a physician should be seen.

Miliaria Rubra (Prickly Heat): Prickly heat is an itchy, red, bumpy rash caused by plugged sweat glands on areas of the skin that are kept wet by sweating such as the armpits and groin. Treatment involves cooling and drying the affected skin while trying to avoid further sweating. Itching may be relieved by taking antihistamines, such as Benadryl 25 to 50 mg every 6 hours.

Heat Syncope: Syncope (fainting) is caused by insufficient blood to the brain. In the heat, blood vessels on the skin dilate, taking blood from the brain and heart, and standing for long periods of time causes blood to stay in the legs. Both of these things, along with lower blood volume from dehydration, can cause lack of blood to the brain resulting in a person becoming light-headed, dizzy, or fainting.

Have the person lie down with their legs elevated until the symptoms have resolved. Give them cool fluids to drink while cooling the skin with water or by placing ice packs or cool cloths next to the neck, armpits, and groin.

Heat Cramps: Painful muscle spasms can occur in overheated muscles that are exercised heavily. Often they occur in individuals who are salt deficient. Cramps often begin when the individual is resting after exercise and present as severe pain and spasms of the calf, thigh, abdomen, or hand muscles.

Treatment is to have the individual rest in a cool environment while drinking plenty of fluids. Apply steady, gentle massaging-type pressure to the cramped muscle. Salt drinks or snacks are helpful with heat cramps.

Heat Exhaustion: The most common form of heat-related illness is heat exhaustion. If not treated, it can continue on to become heat stroke, a life-threatening emergency. Heat exhaustion is overheating of the body temperature that does not cause permanent damage, while heat stroke can permanently disable or kill the victim.

Heat exhaustion occurs when the heart and cardiovascular system cannot meet the needs of the skin (temperature regulation), muscles, and internal organs. It usually involves both dehydration and salt depletion. Heat exhaustion is frequently seen as part of other conditions such as illnesses that cause fever, loss of electrolytes, or gastrointestinal illnesses.

Symptoms may include thirst, fatigue, nausea, weakness, loss of appetite, vomiting, headache, dizziness on standing from a seated position, and muscle cramps. Sweating is almost always present however, it may be absent and the skin may feel cool to the touch. Mental status is usually normal, although there may be minor confusion or agitation. The pulse is weak and rapid.

Treatment involves taking the stress off of the cardiovascular system and heart. The individual should stop all physical activity, rest in a cool, shaded environment, and remove any heavy or restrictive clothing. Have them drink plenty of fluids containing small amounts of salt, as you would for dehydration.

While heat exhausted individuals may be able to cool off enough on their own, it is best to use external cooling methods to help them. Cool water can be splashed on the skin while fanning the individual. Better yet, ice or cold packs can be placed along the side of the neck, armpits, and groin areas where large blood vessels are relatively close to the skin. This promotes rapid cooling of the blood. Be careful not to put ice packs directly on the skin for long periods of time. Wrap them in a light towel or cloth.

Individuals with heat exhaustion appear to recover very quickly with the above care. However, it takes the body 24 hours of rest and re-hydration to fully recover.

Heat Stroke: As heat exhaustion progresses, the body’s cooling system completely breaks down and the blood and organs overheat. Known as heat stroke, this is a true medical emergency that has an 80 percent chance of death if not treated.

The difference between heat exhaustion and heat stroke is technically the presence of tissue injury, something that is difficult at best to tell in pre-hospital situation. For practical purposes, anyone who has symptoms of heat exhaustion and abnormal changes in their mental state, such as extreme confusion, disorientation, anxiety, agitation, or inability to walk in a straight line, should be considered to have heat stroke. They may also develop seizures or coma.

Body temperature is hot, usually over 105 degrees. Blood pressure is usually low (check for a weak pulse in the wrist), pulse high (greater than 100 beats per minute), and breathing rapid (over 20 breaths per minute). The skin may be red and hot, although this does not occur with everyone. Sweating may have stopped or may be present.

Heat stroke is a medical emergency that requires rapid hospitalization. Seek help immediately. Above 106 degrees, the body can lose the ability to control its own temperature and temperatures can rise uncontrollably causing severe damage to the kidneys, liver, brain, heart, muscles, and coagulation systems. Intensive medical care is required.

While waiting for help, immediately cool the victim as quickly as possible using the techniques described under heat exhaustion. If available, the individual can be carefully immersed in cool water. Do not immerse in ice water, which can cause severe constriction of the skin blood vessels and limit the ability to lose heat. It can also cause shivering, which is the body’s way to generate more heat—not something you need at this time. Treat for shock by lying the person down with legs elevated.

Do not give the individual anything to drink because of the risk of vomiting and aspirating stomach contents into the lungs. Medicines for fever, such as Tylenol or aspirin, are of no help and should not be given.

Most heat illnesses are entirely preventable through proper planning and hydration. Remember to know the environmental conditions you are facing, stay properly hydrated, and avoid over-exposure to the sun and heat. Doing so will let you enjoy the outdoors without becoming the next victim of the heat.